Star rising times in a different place given the latitude and time of one place

Star rising times in a different place given the latitude and time of one place

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I don't know astronomy that well, but I am preparing for the second stage of IJSO, and here in India they do add some questions like these ones.

A star is seen rising from Kolkata (23.5N 92 E) at 7 pm IST. What time can it be seen rising from Mumbai (19N 72E)?

If someone could explain how I might go about solving this, and some surrounding theory so I can grasp the concept, I'll be really grateful.

"Time" in astronomy has many meanings. In essence, let us look at something called Sidereal Time.

On a fixed day, the difference between local and sidereal time is roughly the same. Sidereal time is the sum of the star's right ascension (constant) and its hour angle. The rising hour angle is given by the expression

$$arccos(- an (p) an(d)),$$

where p is the latitude and d is the declination.

Since the latitude is "roughly" the same we only need to take longitude into account. This means that the time when an event happens, since it happens at the same sidereal time happens $S_2-S_1$ (S are local sidereal times) later in the second city (the difference is roughly the same since the difference between local and sidereal times is constant for this day).

Now, it happens 80 minutes later since 20 degrees to 360 is 80 min to 24h.


Today's times of sunrise and sunset and the length of the current day are displayed below the Sun icon near the top of the page. The day length is defined as the time span between sunrise and sunset.

Problems? See “How are sunrise and sunset defined?” in the FAQ section below.

Current Sun position and distance

The area near the top of the page also includes information about the current position of the Sun from the perspective of the selected city. This updates in real-time, so it always shows the current situation.

  • Sun Direction shows the direction (north, east, south, or west) of the Sun in three different formats:
    1. The arrow shows the Sun's direction as it would show on a standard map, where upwards means north, right means east, down is south, and left is west.
    2. The number next to the arrow provides the same information as an azimuth angle. As on a compass, the azimuth is measured in degrees, with 360 in a full circle, counted in a clockwise direction from north. North has an azimuth value of 0 degrees, east is 90 degrees, south is 180 degrees, and west is 270 degrees.
    3. The abbreviation provides a verbal indication of the approximate direction. Here, N means north, E means east, S means south, and W means west. So, for example, SSW is south-southwest.
    Note: The direction is based on true north, not magnetic north.
  • Sun Altitude is the vertical angle the Sun makes with the horizon. It shows how high the Sun appears in the sky or how far it is below the horizon.
  • Sun Distance states the current distance between the Earth and the Sun.

Problems? See “The distance is shown in the wrong format. How do I change to miles or kilometers?” in the FAQ section below.

Next equinox or solstice

The Next Equinox or Next Solstice field shows the local date and time of the start of the next astronomical season. Click on the date and time to see the dates and times for other seasons.

Sunrise and Sunset Today

The area near the top of the page also includes the local time and direction of today's sunrise and sunset. See “Current Sun position and distance” above to learn about the meaning of the arrows and degrees.

Change city

Use the search field to open the Sunrise & Sunset Page for a different place or country. The search supports ZIP/postal codes for several countries, including the United States and Canada.

You can also enter geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) to find Sun times for any place on Earth.

Problems? See “The city search lists several places with the same name. Which is the one I'm looking for?” in the FAQ section below.

Time/General, Weather, Time Zone, DST, and Sun & Moon tabs

Use the navigation tabs next to the search field to access the General City Page (Time/General tab) or other sub-pages dedicated to specific topics, such as Weather, Time Zone, and DST Changes in the city.

Yearly Sun Graph

The Yearly Sun Graph illustrates the amount of daylight the selected location receives throughout the year. It also shows the three stages of twilight that occur between day and night.

  • The graph's vertical axis (y-axis) defines the time of day, while the horizontal axis (x-axis) represents the time of year. The graph encompasses one whole year, each day being represented by a thin vertical slice.
  • The blue shadings in the graph symbolize day, night, and three twilight phases. See the legend below the graph for more details.
  • The distribution of daylight and twilight on the selected date is displayed in more detail below the graph.
  • The graph defaults to the current date. To select a different date, hover your mouse over it and move the white vertical line to a date of your choice. Click on the graph to lock it on the date currently shown. Click again to unlock.
  • The red horizontal line represents solar noon, which is the moment the Sun crosses the local meridian (longitude) and reaches its highest position in the sky.
  • The yellow horizontal line is solar midnight. It marks the moment when the Sun reaches the lowest position below the horizon.

If the selected location changes to and from Daylight Saving Time (DST) during the year, the change is marked with a green vertical line in the graph. Beyond these green lines, the day, night and twilight phases shift up or down to reflect the jump in civil time in relation to solar time caused by the DST switch.

Problems? See “Why does the graph look like it's cut into several pieces?” in the FAQ section below.

Sunrise and sunset table

The main body of the page shows a table with Sun times and other Sun data for the selected location for a month at a time. Use the drop-down menus above the table or the links below the table to select a different month. Click on a table row to see a graph showing the Sun's position throughout the selected day (see “Graph showing Sun position at any point in time” for more information).

  • Date: Each row in the table shows Sun information for a specific date, which is displayed in the column on the left.
  • Sunrise/Sunset: The next two columns show the local times of sunrise and sunset for each date in the selected month. This takes into account all Daylight Saving Time (DST) clock changes. It also includes the direction of the sunrise or sunset as an arrow and in degrees.
    Problems? See “Why does the Sun rise later and set earlier than stated?”, “Does the Sun Calculator take into account refraction?”, “How are sunrise and sunset defined?”, and “What do the arrows mean?” in the FAQ section below.
  • Daylength shows the time span between sunrise and sunset for each date (Length column) and its difference in relation to the previous day (Difference column). The duration is shown in the hh:mm:ss format where hh stands for hours, mm for minutes, and ss for seconds. The difference is shown in minutes and seconds, with a plus sign (+) if this day is longer than the previous day and a minus sign (−) if it is shorter than the previous day.
  • Astronomical Twilight, Nautical Twilight, and Civil Twilight list the start and end times for the three stages of twilight. Note that they are not arranged chronologically. The Start columns refer to the beginning of each phase in the morning, while the End columns show the times they end in the evening.
    Problems? See “Do the twilight phases really last all day?” in the FAQ section below.
  • Solar Noon: The two columns on the right refer to solar noon, the instant when the Sun passes the meridian (longitude) of the selected location. This is also the moment when it reaches its highest position in the sky and appears either due north, due south, or directly overhead.
    • Time includes both the local time and the Sun's maximum altitude of the day, which it reaches that moment. The altitude is the vertical angular distance between the horizon and the center of the Sun's disk. It indicates how high the Sun appears in the sky. At 0 degrees, the Sun's center is on the horizon, at 90 degrees, it is in the zenith position directly overhead.
    • The last column (Mil. . ) shows the Sun's distance from Earth at the moment of solar noon&mdashmore specifically, the distance between the center of the Earth to the center of the Sun. Subtract 660,000 kilometers or 410,104 miles to get the approximate distance between the surfaces of the two bodies. The distance varies because Earth's orbit is elliptical rather than circular. The Sun is closest on perihelion, around January 3, and most distant on aphelion, around July 5. The mean distance is 149,600,000 kilometers or 92,960,000 miles.

    Graph showing Sun position at any point in time

    Click on a row in the table to see a graph showing how the Sun's position changes throughout the selected day. The graph defaults to the current time. Move your mouse over the graph to select a different time of day.

    The box on the right shows the following data for the selected time:

    • Altitude: the Sun's altitude is the vertical angle the Sun makes with the horizon. At 0 degrees, the Sun's center is on the horizon, at 90 degrees, it is in the zenith position directly overhead negative values mean that the center of the Sun is below the horizon. At sunrise and sunset, when the upper edge of the Sun's disk touches the horizon, its center is about 0.25 degrees below the horizon.
    • Heading: the Sun's azimuth refers to its cardinal direction. The azimuth is measured in degrees, with 360 in a full circle, counted in a clockwise direction from north. North has an azimuth value of 0 degrees, east is 90 degrees, south is 180 degrees, and west is 270 degrees.
    • Position: indicates if it is day, night, or one of the three stages of twilight at the selected time.

    Star rising times in a different place given the latitude and time of one place - Astronomy

    Why do the stars seem to rise earlier each night?

    Why do the stars that we see in the night sky change from season to season?

    There are two separate reasons for these phenomena, Rotation and Revolution.

    I.e. The Earth rotates about its axis while it revolves around the Sun.

    The Earth rotates from west to east about its axis of rotation which is a line joining the celestial poles and if this axis is produced far enough, it will cut the celestial sphere at a point marked by the North Star (Polaris) as shown in the diagram. Facing north from the Earth, the Pole Star appears stationary, and the other stars appear to rotate from east to west around the Pole Star although in fact the positions of the stars are fixed and it is the Earth which is rotating from west to east.

    The time taken for a star to complete a circuit around the Pole Star is called a star’s day or sidereal day. If the sidereal day were to be exactly 24 hours, as is the Mean Solar Day, then the stars would rise and set at the same times every day. However, the Earth completes each rotation about its axis in 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds so the stars will take the same amount of time to circuit the Pole Star and that is the length of the sidereal day. Therefore, if a star rises in the east at a certain time on a certain day, it will next do so 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds later. In other words, the star in question will rise 3 minutes and 56 seconds earlier each day (usually rounded off to 4 minutes).

    For example, Say that Arcturus (the brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere) rises at 18.00 mean time on a certain day we know that it will rise again 23 hrs. and 56 mins. later so we can easily calculate that it will rise at 17.56 mean time the next day (4 minutes earlier).

    Revolution. In the diagram below we see the Earth as it orbits the Sun or to put it another way, we see it as it revolves around the Sun. The positions of some of the more well known stars in relation to our Sun are also shown and it can be seen that, as the Earth follows its orbital path, different stars will gradually come into and out of view in the night sky. For example, we will see Sirius in the night sky during the Northern Hemisphere’s winter but we won’t see it during the summer nights. Its not that it’s in a different place, its just that it is now on our daylight side.

    So, in the Northern Hemisphere, we have our winter stars such as Aldebaran, Rigel and Betelgeuse and we have our summer stars such as Nunki and Kaus Australis of course, it is the other way round for the Southern Hemisphere.

    Circumpolar Stars. Depending on the latitude of the observer, some stars will never rise or set because they will always be above the horizon, these are known as circumpolar stars.

    Example. The diagram below shows the constellations Ursa Major (Great Bear) and Cassiopeia which are both circumpolar to observers throughout the Northern Hemisphere and down to 20 o South in the Southern Hemisphere. As Ursa Major revolves about the Pole Star so do the five stars of Cassiopeia.

    There are many other circumpolar constellations such as Ursa Minor, Auriga and Perseus in the Northern Hemisphere and Centaurus and Crux in the Southern Hemisphere we will be looking at these more closely in future articles of this series.

    In the next article of this series, we will discuss the stars that we can see in the Northern Hemisphere’s summer sky.

    U.S. pharmacies are told to offer second vaccine doses to people who got first shots elsewhere.

    Federal health officials said on Tuesday that they were directing nearly all drugstores and grocery-store pharmacies to offer second doses of Covid-19 vaccines to people who received their first shot from a different provider.

    Growing numbers of Americans who received a first shot of the two-dose Pfizer-BioNtech or Moderna vaccine are not getting their second shots, in part because of challenges with access. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than 5 million people, or nearly 8 percent of those who were partially vaccinated, have missed getting their second dose.

    Though that is not a high rate compared with those seen for multidose vaccines against other conditions, some states have been taking steps to prevent it from rising.

    The new federal directive is aimed especially at encouraging college students who got their first shots on or near campus to get their second doses at home, according to Andy Slavitt, the White House’s senior adviser for Covid-19 response. To accomplish that, he said, pharmacies participating in a federal vaccine distribution program will set aside any residency requirements for vaccine recipients.

    College students are a challenging group to get fully vaccinated. Many who became eligible recently got their first shot while still on campus, but will have left for the summer by the time they are due for their second shot.

    Other recipients may have been unable to get a second appointment at their original provider or had an appointment that was canceled.

    Many pharmacies were already giving out second vaccine doses to people who got first shots elsewhere. CVS stores, in particular, have become a destination for people scrambling to find a second shot, and a spokeswoman for Walgreens said her company was offering second doses without regard to where the first was administered.

    New York City officials said on Tuesday that the city has taken a similar approach, allowing people to receive second shots at any city-run site. The problem is less pronounced in the city than it is nationally, with only about 5 percent of city residents missing their second dose, officials said.

    People can schedule appointments at city sites in advance, or they can walk in. They need to bring proof of their first dose, like a C.D.C. vaccination card or an electronic record, to ensure that they receive the right vaccine within the recommended time.

    “Our goal here is to keep reminding people to get that second dose however works best,” Mayor Bill de Blasio said at a news conference. “We’re going to accommodate them and keep this progress moving.”

    Dr. Dave Chokshi, the city’s health commissioner, said that getting a second dose at a different location than the first should be a last resort. “We want people to keep their second-dose appointments if they’ve already made them,” he said.

    The Story of Why the Moon Waxes and Wanes

    The Moon visited each of his wives each day until the sisters noticed a change – one of the sisters, Rohini, captures the Moon’s attention and he lingers longer with her (for she has the fertility and power of Aldebaran, the Red Star that makes her the Red Goddess), the other sisters turn to their father for fairness. They beg their father three times to get the Moon to come to all of them, the third time they ask their father to punish the Moon. Their father, the Cosmic Helper and World Maker said “I will make the Moon waste away and die, even though he is a God”. With that curse, the Moon began to get thinner and thinner and waste away in front of their eyes.

    Now at the realization they could lose him completely, the wives felt deep compassion for him and realized they wanted him to live, calling out to their father, “Save him please!”

    Their father told them that the curses of Gods cannot be undone. He could only modify it. He could restore the Moon again, but he would cycle through the sickness and become well again, repeatedly. That was the best he could do on his own curse.

    And so it was, the Moon could live, visiting each wife, each night, no longer staying only with Rohini (even though he favors her still). This is how the Moon waxes and wanes throughout its cycle, still visiting one region a day arcing across the sky every month.

    The moon is considered exalted in the place in the sky called Rohini, where consciousness and creativity and fertility flourishes on these days.

    The Moon Pattern is our Ancient Clock

    In astronomy, the Moon moves along a predictable path in our sky, the same path that the other planets and the Sun appear to travel. Our ancient connection with the stars and time is connected most with the Moon. It is because the Moon appears in a different part of the sky each night, that our ancestors were able to track time, our connections with the stars and eventually seasons and years. “The Moon is the basis of the heavenly clock.” (Dennis Harness author of Nakshatras)

    The first degrees of Sagittarius point to the center of our Galaxy, where our Sun draws a line to the center of the Galaxy.

    The ancient Indian Calendar is based on the movement of the moon and how it activates different portions of the sky each day, namely how it activates the fixed stars that are beyond the moon and how the energy that comes from that region of the cosmos affects life on planet Earth. Each region of sky is called a moon mansion or a lunar mansion. The sanskrit word for a portion of the each constellation is Nakshatra. The moon passes “through” Nakshatras as it orbits Earth. So, even though Nakshatra has to do with the stars, the moon is what activates that region of the sky connected to the dance of solar-lunar movement that our biodynamic field and bodies respond to through the seasons, and the lunar cycles. Nakshatras

    The word Nakshatra is a Sanskrit term. The root “Naksh” means to approach, while “Tra” means a tool, instrumentality or a means. So, a Nakshatra is a means to approaching our innate connection with cosmic powers and extending our human time (breaths of our life) with a greater cycle of time (the life time of the stars and planets).

    The term Nakshatra is mentioned in the Rg Veda, the most ancient of the four Vedas (dated to at least 4,000 B.C.E by Eastern and Western archeologists). The Nakshatras are listed in the Arthava and Yajur Vedas, ancient texts that describe how we can live in harmony in every aspect of life.

    Since the Moon takes 27 days to complete a circuit of the zodiac (using the Vedic tradition of 13 degrees for the mean daily motion of the Moon). This means that every night we would see the Moon in a different place in the sky, or a different Moon Mansion, and it would return to the same place in the zodiac 27 days later. There are 27 or 28 Lunar mansions in Vedic astrology because the full cycle is actually 27.3 days.

    The Middle East had a system which used 28 lunar mansions, as did China. The Celts also had a myth of a Moon king and 27 star wives. Observers around the world from different cultures all used 27 and 28 lunar mansions to mark time and understand our place in the Universe. This ancient form of understanding the cosmos is echoed in Greek and Egyptian mythology.

    Ancient Calendars

    The Vedic system is one of the oldest constantly used methods for making calendars and understanding natural rhythms. From this comes an understanding of lunar and planetary combinations that repeat themselves, and give us windows into Earthly and cosmic rhythms. Some might call the ability to see complex combinations ahead of time the ability to predict outcomes, some call it mere astronomy. The cosmic principles that underlie the planets and the moon and how they affect our consciousness and lives is the source of Vedic astrology. Only in recent history have complex topics of quantum physics, geomagnetic fields of planets and dark matter all combined to barely begin explaining what is called the energy of the Universe.

    Conscious Calendars connected with the Rhythms of the Moon

    The Conscious Calendars use a combination of the rhythm of the Moon, the planets, the sun, and the daily sunrise to give you a pulse of the day. It is from this special combination, more than a panchangam, that you are given insights to what each day’s rhythm might be like.

    The most important thing to remember from all of this, is that our daily rhythm is connected with the same sky and the same moon as our ancestors, and that the ancient method of looking to the sky to understand our day, our month and our year is born in each of us, just by being human.

    The 27 Moon Mansions

    The 27 Moon Mansions became what we know today as the 12 signs of the zodiac in modern times. So all 27 Moon mansions are within the 12 signs. There are two ½ Moon mansions per zodiac sign. In another article, I name the zodiac signs with the mansions and talk about how this relates to all of the energies of the Universe – the gunas.

    The 27 Mansions of the Moon are listed in modern day as:

    Ashvini, Bharani, Krittika, Rohini, Mrgashira, Ardra, Punarvasu, Pushya, Ashlesha, Magha, Purva Phalguni, Uttara Phalguni, Hasta, Chitra, Swati, Vishaka, Anuradha, Jyestha, Mula, Purva Ashada, Uttara Ashada, Shravana, Dhanishta, Shatabisha, Purva Bhadrapada, Uttara Bhadrapada, Revati.

    Abhijhit, a magic window, which is only used with CHOOSING EVENTS. This is reflected in the Conscious Calendar system as a Green Day when the right elements align. This is a very special Moon Mansion, only used on special kinds of occasions and with electional astrology. Conscious Calendars is a color-coded Vedic astrology calendar which helps you choose what activities are aligned with the day to reduce friction and resistance and increase efficiency, ease and joy.
    It is a tool to help you evolve your consciousness on a daily basis.

    This is a foundational Vedic Astrology article, which is meant to be a glimpse into ONE of the elements which makes up the Conscious Calendar system.

    See how this gets complex pretty fast? To determine the energy of the day, Conscious Calendars examines the light of the moon, the day of the week, the Lunar Mansion, and whether the Moon is receiving rays of light from Jupiter, Venus or Mercury and/or whether the Moon is receiving rays of disturbance from Mars, Saturn or the eclipse patterns is all integrated into the simple color coded system of Conscious Calendars. wow!

    Vedic astrology is a complex topic. The lunar mansions are linked with our most ancient form of keeping time. The moon moves across the sky with a regular beat. It is our first clock as human beings, along with the rising and setting of the sun.

    Vedic Astrology uses a both a moon and sun calendar simultaneously, with the ryhthm of the Moon setting the flavor of the day globally.

    Welcome to the solar-luni or Sun-moon calendar that has been used for over 7,000 years. Simplified, with Conscious Calendars.

    Is it just me or is the MOON rising in a different position? Way far north!

    I don't know where you looked online for information, but the google search "moonrise position" gave me this as a result at the top:

    I can see the moon right now and it is doing
    what it does everynight.

    To those of us that watch the moon rise and set near every evening, watching the skies, and being quite familiar with what goes on up 'there', and what twinkling lights are what, this isn't news.

    The more people that suddenly wake up and realize that we don't live in a cartoon world where the sun and moon always rise and set exactly in the east and exactly west without variation is kind of fun.
    Welcome to the way the universe really works kid.

    Also, I'm pretty sure your bearings are off if you think that's North. I see the moon right now, exactly where it's suppose to be.

    In winter full moons rise north of east, in summer they rise south of east

    there are a few threads like this going around at present.. i even made one a few weeks ago about my 10yo son continuously telling me that the moon is up-side-down + in the wrong place.

    Thanks for the thread and I know what you mean. Your not crazy and niether am I or the countless others that know there is something not right here. Read a few of my posts on this subject .. That will tell you another persons take on this.. thx op

    Okay I'm just going to ask it.

    Does any one of you who think the moon behaves odd know anything about astronomy or even know anyone actively involved with astronomy?

    It has nothing to do with being crazy, it's about understanding what you observe. It's good you ask questions but you have to bear in mind that most things have an actual scientific explanation. It's not all rubish you know.

    I think it is because the movement happens so quickly going into fall and most people do not notice the moon position much. So when they do take notice before a major seasonal change it seem a bit startling to them.

    I love the moon! I try to gaze at it every night.

    Its what we call autumn, approaching winter. It happens every year

    Originally posted by popsmayhem
    Trust me it is just you..

    I can see the moon right now and it is doing
    what it does everynight.

    There is just so much crap on the Internet that when you try to search for info, the whole dang place is clogged up with mindless dribble, and the really helpful information gets lost in it.

    I've been noticing oddities in the orbit, since before I found this guy's research. (You should read more of his articles too.) I think we KNOW when something is amiss with such a fundamental part of our life as The Moon. This guy just confirms it.

    In my opinion, I believe this type of confusion comes about because people are more interested in things like Nibiru, Elenin, UFOS, or whatever other speculative event/idea than things such as the Moon.

    As they are outside searching for Plaedians, UFOS, or the second Sun, they notice that the Moon wasn't where it was last night at 8:00 and immediately think something is amiss.

    If those people would take the time to learn about and understand the Moon, and its relation to the Earth, there would be far less of these threads. But, don't let me distract you from the newest Youtube video about Elenin causing earthquakes in Portugal.

    Star rising times in a different place given the latitude and time of one place - Astronomy

    Article 1, Section 4, Clause 1

    Debate in Virginia Ratifying Convention

    4--5, 9 , 14 June 1788 Elliot 3:9--11, 60, 175--76, 366--67

    Mr. Nicholas . There is another objection which has been echoed from one end of the continent to the other--that Congress may alter the time, place, and manner of holding elections that they may direct the place of elections to be where it will be impossible for those who have a right to vote, to attend for instance, that they may order the freeholders of Albemarle to vote in the county of Princess Anne, or vice versa or regulate elections, otherwise, in such a manner as totally to defeat their purpose, and lay them entirely under the influence of Congress. I flatter myself, that, from an attentive consideration of this power, it will clearly appear that it was essentially necessary to give it to Congress, as, without it, there could have been no security for the general government against the state legislatures. What, Mr. Chairman, is the danger apprehended in this case? If I understand it right, it must be, that Congress might cause the elections to be held in the most inconvenient places, and at so inconvenient a time, and in such a manner, as to give them the most undue influence over the choice, nay, even to prevent the elections from being held at all,--in order to perpetuate themselves. But what would be the consequence of this measure? It would be this, sir,--that Congress would cease to exist it would destroy the Congress itself it would absolutely be an act of suicide and therefore it can never be expected. This alteration, so much apprehended, must be made by law that is, with the concurrence of both branches of the legislature. Will the House of Representatives, the members of which are chosen only for two years, and who depend on the people for their reëlection, agree to such an alteration? It is unreasonable to suppose it.

    But let us admit, for a moment, that they will: what would be the consequence of passing such a law? It would be, sir, that, after the expiration of the two years, at the next election they would either choose such men as would alter the law, or they would resist the government. An enlightened people will never suffer what was established for their security to be perverted to an act of tyranny. It may be said, perhaps, that resistance would then become vain Congress are vested with the power of raising an army to which I say, that if ever Congress shall have an army sufficient for their purpose, and disposed to execute their unlawful commands, before they would act under this disguise, they would pull off the mask, and declare themselves absolute. I ask, Mr. Chairman, is it a novelty in our government? Has not our state legislature the power of fixing the time, places, and manner of holding elections? The possible abuse here complained of never can happen as long as the people of the United States are virtuous. As long as they continue to have sentiments of freedom and independence, should the Congress be wicked enough to harbor so absurd an idea as this objection supposes, the people will defeat their attempt by choosing other representatives, who will alter the law. If the state legislature, by accident, design, or any other cause, would not appoint a place for holding elections, then there might be no election till the time was past for which they were to have been chosen and as this would eventually put an end to the Union, it ought to be guarded against and it could only be guarded against by giving this discretionary power, to the Congress, of altering the time, place, and manner of holding the elections. It is absurd to think that Congress will exert this power, or change the time, place, and manner established by the states, if the states will regulate them properly, or so as not to defeat the purposes of the Union. It is urged that the state legislature ought to be fully and exclusively possessed of this power. Were this the case, it might certainly defeat the government. As the powers vested by this plan in Congress are taken from the state legislatures, they would be prompted to throw every obstacle in the way of the general government. It was then necessary that Congress should have this power.

    Another strong argument for the necessity of this power is, that, if it was left solely to the states, there might have been as many times of choosing as there are states. States having solely the power of altering or establishing the time of election, it might happen that there should be no Congress. Not only by omitting to fix a time, but also by the elections in the states being at thirteen different times, such intervals might elapse between the first and last election, as to prevent there being a sufficient number to form a house and this might happen at a time when the most urgent business rendered their session necessary and by this power, this great part of the representation will be always kept full, which will be a security for a due attention to the interest of the community and also the power of Congress to make the times of elections uniform in all the states, will destroy the continuance of any cabal, as the whole body of representatives will go out of office at once.

    Mr. Henry . What can be more defective than the clause concerning the elections? The control given to Congress over the time, place, and manner of holding elections, will totally destroy the end of suffrage. The elections may be held at one place, and the most inconvenient in the state or they may be at remote distances from those who have a right of suffrage: hence nine out of ten must either not vote at all, or vote for strangers for the most influential characters will be applied to, to know who are the most proper to be chosen. I repeat, that the control of Congress over the manner, &c., of electing, well warrants this idea. The natural consequence will be, that this democratic branch will possess none of the public confidence the people will be prejudiced against representatives chosen in such an injudicious manner. The proceedings in the northern conclave will be hidden from the yeomanry of this country. We are told that the yeas and nays shall be taken, and entered on the journals. This, sir, will avail nothing: it may be locked up in their chests, and concealed forever from the people for they are not to publish what parts they think require secrecy: they may think, and will think, the whole requires it. Another beautiful feature of this Constitution is, the publication from time to time of the receipts and expenditures of the public money.

    Mr. Henry . I shall make a few observations to prove that the power over elections, which is given to Congress, is contrived by the federal government, that the people may be deprived of their proper influence in the government, by destroying the force and effect of their suffrages. Congress is to have a discretionary control over the time, place, and manner of elections. The representatives are to be elected, consequently, when and where they please. As to the time and place, gentlemen have attempted to obviate the objection by saying, that the time is to happen once in two years, and that the place is to be within a particular district, or in the respective counties. But how will they obviate the danger of referring the manner of election to Congress? Those illumined genii may see that this may not endanger the rights of the people but in my unenlightened understanding, it appears plain and clear that it will impair the popular weight in the government. Look at the Roman history. They had two ways of voting--the one by tribes, and the other by centuries. By the former, numbers prevailed in the latter, riches preponderated. According to the mode prescribed, Congress may tell you that they have a right to make the vote of one gentleman go as far as the votes of a hundred poor men. The power over the manner admits of the most dangerous latitude. They may modify it as they please. They may regulate the number of votes by the quantity of property, without involving any repugnancy to the Constitution. I should not have thought of this trick or contrivance, had I not seen how the public liberty of Rome was trifled with by the mode of voting by centuries, whereby one rich man had as many votes as a multitude of poor men. The plebeians were trampled on till they resisted. The patricians trampled on the liberties of the plebeians till the latter had the spirit to assert their right to freedom and equality. The result of the American mode of election may be similar.

    Mr. Monroe wished that the honorable gentleman, who had been in the federal Convention, would give information respecting the clause concerning elections. He wished to know why Congress had an ultimate control over the time, place, and manner, of elections of representatives, and the time and manner of that of senators, and also why there was an exception as to the place of electing senators.

    Mr. Madison . Mr. Chairman, the reason of the exception was, that, if Congress could fix the place of choosing the senators, it might compel the state legislatures to elect them in a different place from that of their usual sessions, which would produce some inconvenience, and was not necessary for the object of regulating the elections. But it was necessary to give the general government a control over the time and manner of choosing the senators, to prevent its own dissolution.

    With respect to the other point, it was thought that the regulation of time, place, and manner, of electing the representatives, should be uniform throughout the continent. Some states might regulate the elections on the principles of equality, and others might regulate them otherwise. This diversity would be obviously unjust. Elections are regulated now unequally in some states, particularly South Carolina, with respect to Charleston, which is represented by thirty members. Should the people of any state by any means be deprived of the right of suffrage, it was judged proper that it should be remedied by the general government. It was found impossible to fix the time, place, and manner, of the election of representatives, in the Constitution. It was found necessary to leave the regulation of these, in the first place, to the state governments, as being best acquainted with the situation of the people, subject to the control of the general government, in order to enable it to produce uniformity, and prevent its own dissolution. And, considering the state governments and general government as distinct bodies, acting in different and independent capacities for the people, it was thought the particular regulations should be submitted to the former, and the general regulations to the latter. Were they exclusively under the control of the state governments, the general government might easily be dissolved. But if they be regulated properly by the state legislatures, the congressional control will very probably never be exercised. The power appears to me satisfactory, and as unlikely to be abused as any part of the Constitution.


    Steltzner, born 1963, [2] is a native of the San Francisco Bay Area [7] and came from a family that was financially well off, [10] his father being the heir to the Schilling spice fortune. [11] He struggled in classes in high school, earned a failing grade in geometry, and was told by his father he would never amount to anything but a ditch digger. [2] "I was sort of studying sex, drugs and rock and roll in high school," says Steltzner. [2] After high school he played bass and drums in new wave bands. [10] He studied jazz at Berklee College of Music in Boston, for less than a year. [10] As The New Yorker put it, "He was a college dropout and small-town playboy (he briefly dated the model Carré Otis), an assistant manager at an organic market and an occasional grower of weed. He had few skills and fewer prospects." [11] Around 1984, while driving home from music gigs at night, he noticed how the position of the constellation Orion was in a different place than before. This fascinated him, so he decided to take an astronomy class at College of Marin, but he was required to complete a class in physics first, and it was there he had a revelation: nature could be understood and predicted. As Steltzner put it, "I had found religion." [10] By 1985 he quit music and devoted himself full-time to the challenge of school. [2] [10] His education included Tamalpais High School (1981) [12] [13] and College of Marin (1985-1987) [ citation needed ] a Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical engineering at University of California, Davis (1990) a Master of Science degree in applied mechanics at California Institute of Technology (1991) and a PhD in engineering mechanics at University of Wisconsin–Madison (1999). [5] [14] [15]

    Steltzner is married with three children his wife once worked at JPL as well. His second daughter was born three weeks after the Mars landing in 2012. [11]

    Steltzner published an autobiographical book in 2016 titled The Right Kind of Crazy: A True Story of Teamwork, Leadership, and High-Stakes Innovation, [16] a memoir of his time at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the building of the Mars Science Laboratory. In October 2016, he was admitted into the National Academy of Engineering. [17] Steltzner speaks publicly on the topics of leadership, innovation, team building, and the power of curiosity and exploration. [18]

    Steltzner is employed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory where he has worked for about ten years designing, testing and building the sky crane landing system for the Curiosity rover. [7] Steltzner was phase lead and development manager for EDL (Entry, Descent and Landing) of the lander, which successfully landed on Mars on August 5, 2012. [14] The sky crane is an entirely new technology system, Steltzner said of it "When people look at it. it looks crazy. That's a very natural thing. Sometimes when we look at it, it looks crazy. It is the result of reasoned, engineering thought. But it still looks crazy." [19] The sky crane allows for a precise landing ellipse opening up many areas of Mars for exploration that were previously inaccessible due to uneven terrain. [20]

    Steltzner joined JPL in 1991, in the Spacecraft Structures and Dynamics group. [14] He worked on several flight projects including the Shuttle–Mir Program, [6] Galileo, Cassini, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) [21] and Mars Science Laboratory as well as several mission proposals, pre-Phase A projects and technology development efforts. [14] Initially employed as a structures and mechanics personnel, he gravitated towards landing events and Mars Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) systems. [14] He was the landing systems engineer on the cancelled comet mission Champollion and the mechanical systems lead for EDL on MER. [14] When asked what he would like to do next, Steltzner says, "I'd like to see a Mars sample return. I'd like to land on the surface of Europa – the most likely place in the solar system for life. And third, I'd like to float a boat on the methane lakes of Titan." [22]

    Steltzner is the chief engineer of the Mars 2020 project, which launched the Perseverance rover to Mars in July 2020. [17] The mission is taking Martian surface samples and rock cores for potential return to Earth by a later mission.

    Steltzner is often profiled by the press in human interest stories [23] with a focus on a "rock and roll" engineer image for example he was called "the face of the 2012 Mars Science Laboratory mission" by the EE Times, who also called him "a bit of a hipster" [7] he was interviewed on National Public Radio which noted his "Elvis haircut", [2] and profiled again on NPR in a piece called "Red Planet, Green Thumb: How A NASA Scientist Engineers His Garden". [24] Steltzner also participated on the NPR radio quiz program Wait Wait. Don't Tell Me! in 2012. [25] He has been profiled similarly in other sources. [8] [26] [27] A chapter-length biography of Steltzner in the book Going to Mars (2004) is titled "Elvis Lives" after the rock and roll star who Steltzner supposedly resembles, [10] which Esquire said "calls back to NASA's halcyon days in the late 1950s and early 1960s". [28]

    He was among the scientists and engineers featured on the NOVA episode "Mars Dead or Alive" (2004), which chronicled the process that ultimately delivered the rovers Spirit and Opportunity to Mars. [29] The episode was nominated for an Emmy in 2004. He also appeared in the NOVA episodes "Welcome to Mars" (2005) and "The Great Math Mystery" (2015), Roadtrip Nation (2014), and other TV documentaries including Countdown to Mars (2003), Bouncing to Mars (2003), Spirit of Exploration (2005), What Went Right (2006), Mars Rising episodes "Journey to the Red Planet" and "Seven Minutes of Terror" (2007), and Horizon episodes "Mission to Mars: A Horizon Special" (2012) and "Man on Mars: Mission to the Red Planet" (2014). Steltzner appeared on the news program Studio B with Shepard Smith on August 6, 2012. [30]


    At the moment in Peru, it’s forbidden to drive your car on Sundays, due to Covid. Hilariously it’s ok to use public transport (since Covid mustn’t catch buses). We needed to plan where we’d end up on Sunday.

    We headed straight to Ica. I know a place there. Deeper in the desert, by some sand dunes. From that spot, a sandy road takes you towards Paracas national reserve, which is on the coast and a step closer to our destination. This road isn’t monitored by the police and, even though Covid comes out at full strength on Sundays according to the Peruvian officials, this is the road we’d drive on Sunday.

    I’ve driven numerous times through the desert with my wife and daughter. While Tanya, my wife doesn’t like the desert at all, I do love it. I wanted for some of that love to rub off on Mia. We’d stay for the evening-and-half of the next day by the dune, before heading towards the coast.

    Apart from whining a little due to the heat, Mia was loving her desert experience. Almost unlimited space to run around, be wild, without restrictions, pure joy.

    As the sand cooled, Mia and I climbed up this large sand dune. Though, we did use the easier path to climb it, near that more solid rock-and-sand-formation in the distance. I think my girl is getting to appreciate the desert like her dad.

    Being in a place like this makes you feel so small, and yet, you fill like you’re a little grain of something bigger. Being in the desert at night, with a sky full of stars was a special experience. I decided to climb the dune again, but I wouldn’t use my flash-light. I wanted my eyes to get used to the darkness to better see where I point the camera.

    I ended up having a surreal experience. Up there on the dune, with only the light of the stars and absolutely no sounds, I was deprived of all my regular sensory stimuli. Even walking felt foreign. The sand collapsing under my feet was an unusual sensation. It was all not that different from an experience you’d induce through psychedelic substances. An awakening of senses and thoughts, you almost never awaken otherwise.

    I spent a couple of hours walking along the dune’s crest, lost in my thoughts. When I came back, I simply stared at that starry sky. Thinking of how tiny I was, but also about how everything felt so within reach and so possible.

    Around midday, Sunday, we headed to Paracas. I’ve come to love this area, because I passed through it numerous times while driving from place to place. It’s always windy when you come through here, and this day was no different. It looks so beautiful in photos, so welcoming, but this is what’s truly deceiving about it. As soon as you step outside of your vehicle, you’re hit with cool wind and sometimes sand.

    Still, Paracas is stunning in its own way. And, it surprises you too. Like when you see flamingoes in a pond only a few meters from the road.

    Something that will come as a revelation to some of you. I no longer use my Panasonic gear, for the most part. I’m all Sony now. One of the main reasons? The autofocus. It’s just so dismal on Panasonic, in comparison to the Sonys. I did use it for this photo, but getting these flamingoes in focus was no easy task and once they took flight… well, only one of many images came out well.

    Our new camping spot. I drove far enough from the road, to be away from the sight of the handful of cars that might pass by. Mia was happy to be out of the car and free to run around, jump and look for “treasures” in the form of sand-covered seashells.

    There’s one thing that’s a little strange, in a good way, about traveling with a camper. You move to the most different of places, but your home stays exactly the same. A few times I’ve woken up not remembering exactly where I am. I’m more than happy to have this issue.

    Once again, there was no one around. No sounds, apart from the wind whistling through the windows. The wind picked up around sunset and got even stronger after it. But around 8 pm… Silence…

    The next morning was calm. It’s like we were in a different place once we woke up. The sky was clear and the sun rise was peaceful and beautiful. We were ready for the next leg of our journey.

    There’s one more part in this series of blog posts. I’ll have it up very soon. Stay tuned!

    Star rising times in a different place given the latitude and time of one place - Astronomy


    In the 45 years since launching the Palestine Human Rights Campaign, I’ve witnessed more tragic wars than I can care to count and defended Palestinians against more heinous crimes than I can bear to list. During all this time, we’ve had American supporters who have embraced the cause of Palestinian rights and supported our calls for justice. But never have I witnessed the sea ​of change in opinion and its impact on the policy debate that is now taking place.

    Five decades ago, there were a handful of members of Congress who would courageously speak out and there were some Christian churches, peace and civil rights leaders, and small progressive Jewish groups who would endorse our appeals for Palestinian human rights. For their efforts, they, like us, were subjected to intimidation seeking to silence their voices or punish their advocacy.

    Change began with the first Intifada​, as national television broadcast Israeli troops firing on stone-throwing Palestinian youth, ​and the horror that greeted Yitzhak Rabin’s orders to his soldiers to break the bones of the young protesters. Building on this shifting opinion, Jesse Jackson elevated the issue of justice for Palestinians during his 1988 presidential campaign. That year, we succeeded in having the issue debated, for the first time, from the podium of the Democratic convention.

    After the Madrid Peace Conference and the Oslo Accords, there was another observable shift in US opinion. On closer examination, however, the change was largely on the Democratic side. President Bill Clinton and the Democrats backed the “Oslo process”, while Republicans, whose party had increasingly come under the influence of the right-wing Christians and Reagan-era neo-conservatives, embraced a hardline pro-Israel stance. Since then, this partisan divide has continued to widen.

    As a review of current polling makes clear, this partisan split increasingly masks America’s very real demographic divide on a range of domestic and foreign policyconcerns. On the Democratic side, the largest component group of voters are Blacks, Latinos, Asian-American, millennials and college-educated women. While on the Republican side​, over 40 per cent of their voters are White, older, less than college-educated ​or “born again” Christians Their respective views on Israel/Palestine are mirror images of one another.

    Polls now show that the majority of Democratic voters hold deeply unfavourable views of Benjamin Netanyahu, oppose many Israeli policies, and favour conditioning US aid to Israel based on their treatment of Palestinians. Not only have attitudes changed, but progressive Jewish groups and organised Arab Americans have been empowered by this new political environment and have been engaging their elected officials. This has emboldened members of Congress to speak out. In response to both Israel’s recent policies in Jerusalem and the bombardment of Gaza, this split is having an impact in Congress.

    The result: For the first time in thirty years​, a dozen members took to floor of Congress to denounce Israeli efforts to evict Palestinians from their Jerusalem homes and the killings of civilians in Gaza more than one-half of the Democratic Senate caucus has called for an immediate Israel-Hamas ceasefire and progressives in the House are calling on the president to stop a proposed US arms’ sale to Israel. Also noteworthy has been the muted responses of normally pro-Israel Democratic Senators and Representatives. They know where their base voters are on this issue and they,therefore, are treading carefully.

    The US press has given extensive coverage to this development. I was so proud to see a New York Times front page story open with the sentence “In 1988, when James Zogby…pushed Democrats to include mention of Palestinian sovereignty in their platform they responded with a clear warning… ‘If the P-word is even in the platform, all hell will break loose.’” The article goes on to note how the issue we raised and lost back then, is now centre stage in the policy debate.

    That’s the good news. More sobering is the fact, as I noted in the same story​, “The base of the party is in a very different place than where the party establishment is.” We haven’t won this policy debate, not by a long shot. But what’s new and important is that we’re forcing a debate. And that’s the first step on the road to change.