Astronomy

Will the Heat Death scenario ever occur or just the Big Freeze?

Will the Heat Death scenario ever occur or just the Big Freeze?


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According to the Wikipedia page regarding the ultimate fate of the universe, heat death is a different scenario than the big freeze.

It states that in the big freeze, temperature will asymptotically approach absolute zero. However, the following section about heat death states that heat death may only occur if temperature reaches an eventual temperature minimum.

If temperature never truly reaches absolute zero (the temperature minimum), can heat death even occur in the first place?


The Wikipedia article is somewhat confused on this point (at least one of the references does not support the sentence it is supposed to support).

The classic concept of the heat death of the universe was that eventually it will run out of free energy and there will hence be no possibility of any work. A more modern view of heat death is an approach to maximum entropy where the system will be in equilibrium. This does not rule out random fluctuations bringing it away from equilibrium, but they are so rare it does not matter.

Note that it is entirely possible to have a heat death at any temperature.

The big freeze would happen if expansion of the universe led to temperatures decreasing towards absolute zero. However, if there is accelerating expansion this generates a constant finite temperature horizon radiation, about $10^{-29}$ K. This means that the big freeze will never happen.

Had there not been horizon radiation it would in principle have been possible to avoid heat death by storing some background heat in a perfectly reflective box, waiting until the universe become colder, and use it to perform work. This can be repeated indefinitely. (Not really: the timescales quickly become long enough that random fluctuations destroy your device, but that it a separate issue).


Due to the universe not only expanding but gaining speed, it's pretty well accepted (for now at least) that galaxies will be sitting alone, or maybe with other gravitationally bound neighbor galaxies, as the rest of the universe goes dark all around. Eventually our home galaxy would burn out it's last star. Thats the big freeze, and not happening for a while… The end stages at least. Its seems like heat death is a variation to the big freeze, except expansion somehow stops for heat death? and im not sure what the universal temperature is thought to plato at, but after all thermodynamic process' end, the universe' energy will be lost to the void and entropy will reach its maximum as universal equilibrium is reached (uniform temperature and lack of activity) but tthe time it would take for the last black hole to evaporate is so long it's hard to comprehend, 10^100 or a googol years, if im not mistaken. heat death and the big freeze seem like different ways of explaining the same event, the former being on a longer time scale, but both seeming headed for the same fate. and wiki and google agree most of the time, but a few articles off a google search said the opposite. I think maybe you read some info from contradicting sources is all, if there is a difference in these two, its that expansion stops for heat death, allowing a marginally warmer universe than one with infinite expansion. there is no reason to think thats going to happen with our current understanding of dark energy.


Will the Heat Death scenario ever occur or just the Big Freeze? - Astronomy

There’s a famous Woody Allen scene in the movie Annie Hall when the young Woody is brought to the psychiatrist’s office because he is depressed that the universe will keep expanding. Unstated in the scene was the popular notion that this constant expansion meant the universe was running down. And as Woody was wise to notice, that exhaustion should be depressing.

The scientific term for the universe running down is cosmic “heat death.” The idea behind heat death is that all the differences and distinctions we see in the universe today — all objects big and small and all energy (heat) — in the end becomes dilute with expansion until there is no differentiation of any sort between them, only 100% homogenous gray background noise. All life, all potential is gone and dead.

Cosmic heat death stems in part from the second law of thermodynamics which states that differences in heat will equalize over time. In the 1850s Lord Kelvin and others extrapolated this equalization to imagine what it meant for the universe as a whole. Given enough time the universe will eventually be equalized to total stillness. The eventuality of this end state was highly accepted and somewhat the orthodoxy in textbooks. The universe was running down to heat death.

But Freeman Dyson, the legendary physicist, makes a interesting argument about why there isn’t heat death. Writing in the New York Review of Books about James Gleicks’ new book The Information, Dyson mentions almost in passing that “Thanks to the discoveries of astronomers in the twentieth century, we now know that the heat death is a myth. The heat death can never happen, and there is no paradox.” As an explanation Dyson offers his Cooking Rule illustration:

The belief in a heat death was based on an idea that I call the cooking rule. The cooking rule says that a piece of steak gets warmer when we put it on a hot grill. More generally, the rule says that any object gets warmer when it gains energy, and gets cooler when it loses energy. Humans have been cooking steaks for thousands of years, and nobody ever saw a steak get colder while cooking on a fire. The cooking rule is true for objects small enough for us to handle. If the cooking rule is always true, then Lord Kelvin’s argument for the heat death is correct.

We now know that the cooking rule is not true for objects of astronomical size, for which gravitation is the dominant form of energy. The sun is a familiar example. As the sun loses energy by radiation, it becomes hotter and not cooler. Since the sun is made of compressible gas squeezed by its own gravitation, loss of energy causes it to become smaller and denser, and the compression causes it to become hotter. For almost all astronomical objects, gravitation dominates, and they have the same unexpected behavior. Gravitation reverses the usual relation between energy and temperature. In the domain of astronomy, when heat flows from hotter to cooler objects, the hot objects get hotter and the cool objects get cooler. As a result, temperature differences in the astronomical universe tend to increase rather than decrease as time goes on. There is no final state of uniform temperature, and there is no heat death. Gravitation gives us a universe hospitable to life. Information and order can continue to grow for billions of years in the future, as they have evidently grown in the past.

This is a lot to wrap your head around. It was total news to me. Dyson’s explanation is that extremely big objects (astronomical in size) obey a different thermodynamic law that “ordinary” objects, just as extremely small objects (quantum level and smaller) obey different energy laws from the large. The realm of the super large and super small are different from the rest of us. Dyson mentions that the famous Chinese dissident and astronomer Fang Lizhi and his wife had published the best explanation he had seen of this phenomenon in a chapter called “How Order Was Born of Chaos,” in the book Creation of the Universe. (Source of he illustration above.) Fang offers a very technical argument based on the fact that gravity will affect different kinds of energy differently.

The reason why the presence or absence of heat death is important is contained in Fang’s chapter title: the origin of order. It is harder to explain the constant emergence of increased order in the universe over time if the universe is running down to a death state. Heat death can permit temporary order, but it would not have room for unbounded unlimited order. But a universe without heat death would more easily permit what Freeman Dyson calls infinite growth “in infinite directions.” There would be no limits on how much new order could be possible.

Fang believes that gravity changes everything. An oversimplified summary of Fang’s theory is this rough equation: Radiation + Particles + Gravity == Infinite Information and Evolution, as expressed in this chart from his book.

In case you think this tidys up everything with a neat explanation, please note that we have no idea what gravity is, and no idea what causes the universe to inflate. Other than that, all is clear.:-)

The Fang/Dyson idea (for the lack of a better name) says that rather than an inexorable sinking towards heat death, the universe is biased toward a slow and steady march towards increasing differences over time. Gravity will continue to accentuate the uneven clumping of matter, and create ever more uneven energy potential, constantly building up order, even while local areas run down. But over the very long term, the universe as a whole is running up. No need to worry, Woody.


Question Cyclical Universe

So Eine Unmoeglichkeit ist es doch nicht, das wir Dutsch sprechen koennen!

Catastrophe

Approaching asteroid? Is this THE one?

Dfjchem721

Been meaning to get back to this.

Are you referring to type II core-collapse supernovas and some data to indicate a cold death?

That could be interesting. Does it have anything to do with neutrinos?

Wolfshadw

Catastrophe

Approaching asteroid? Is this THE one?

Well, here you are. ö.
That will help with the können! Would you like this one also? Umläute

IG2007

"Don't criticize what you can't understand. "

Voidpotentialenergy

I really like the fluctuation idea. It seems that whenever the physicists have a problem, the fall back explanation is that it is caused by a "quantum fluctuation". Can't count how many times I have read this. It almost seems like crying "WOLF" too many times.

All the universe is presumed to result from a quantum fluctuation, so why can't everything else?

There is your theory of everything!

Helio

Been meaning to get back to this.

Are you referring to type II core-collapse supernovas and some data to indicate a cold death?

That could be interesting. Does it have anything to do with neutrinos?

There's a great story about the two teams (Berkley & Harvard, 1998, IIRC) that were trying to independently refine the expansion rate (now the Hubble-Lemaitre Constant) with their new ability to locate and study S/N in distant galaxies. It was a race!

It is the Type 1a SN that produce a known luminosity, thus allowing their distance to be determined. With distance known, then with redshift revealing their recessional velocity, they would be able to tweak the H-L Constant (my abbrev.).

What both teams independently discovered was, shockingly, an accelerating rate of expansion for the universe.

You might enjoy how Harvard beat, barely, Berkley in the announcement. Harvard Obs. consisted of astronomers more so than physicists. Berkley had well known physicists (e.g. Perlmutter) and few astronomers, and fewer when one left to join Harvard.

For any SN study, one needs lots of time on very large telescopes, and that takes clout. Berkley seemed to have greater clout and, indeed, they had more SN observations by far over Harvard's number of SN.

The Harvard team, being astronomers, wisely chose to use multiple filters in their observations, thus their margin of error was less than Berkley's. So even with fewer data points, their's were more accurate. Thus, they could be more confident in drawing the stunning acceleration conclusion from their hard evidence.

But SN, Type 1a at least, also produce light profiles where they brighten quickly then fade away over time. So, if a SN, from the observations stated above, show great distance, then they will also be moving away from us the fastest. The result of this recessional motion can be seen in comparing the light profiles. A more distant SN will take more time to fade since they will be farther away from us over time. This also correlates to the expansion rate to help confirm the redshift is real.

The book that gave the account of both teams is quite interesting, and the author was more candid than expected about some frictional feelings between the two camps, which made the account even more real.


How is heat death of the universe possible if energy cannot be destroyed?

Does this mean all heat and light would be emitted into infinite emptiness?

Laws of thermodynamics predict that work can only occur when there is a temperature difference. When the entire universe is the same temperature, no work will be possible. The laws of thermodynamics have been very successful predictors of experimental results.

Right now energy is unevenly distributed. Picture it like a large basin with a divider in the middle. One side of the basin is filled to the top with water and the other side is empty. Now punch a hole at the bottom of the divider and the water from the full side will move the empty side, but only until both sides have the same amount of water. If there is absolutely no input from outside of this system you will see motion happen in the water while it is transferring but after it is balanced out it'll start to go still and then not move anymore.

It's the same reason why Engines can't have a 100% efficiency. While energy is conserved, it's converted into a form where it can't be used. Before that, lets talk about the heat death.

It’s one of the theories on how the universe will end: the ‘Heat Death’ – also known as the ‘Big Freeze’ or the ‘Big Chill’ – has been suggested as one of the ways in which the cosmos could come to an end, especially since it’s ever expanding.

You might think that Heat Death implies some astronomically high temperature that snubs everything out. However British physicist Kelvin, who proposed the idea in the 1850s, referred to the loss of mechanical energy as the theory of heat. In fact, it has been suggest that the more the Universe expands, the cooler it gets.

The idea of heat death actually originates from the second law of thermodynamics – that’s that idea that entropy(randomness) increases in an isolated system (this system being the universe). Entropy, which is the number of ways in which a system can be arranged should never decrease, evolving to a state of maximum disorder (or thermodynamic equilibrium). When this happens, all energy will be evenly distributed throughout the cosmos, leaving no room for any reusable energy or heat to burst into existence. Processes that consume energy, which includes our very living on Earth, would cease and everything everywhere will be the same temperature. That means nothing interesting will ever happen again. Every star will die, nearly all matter will decay, and eventually all that will be left is a sparse soup of particles and radiation.


A Big Freeze, Rip or Crunch: how will the Universe end?

The "most precise measurement" ever made recently suggested our Universe is expanding much faster than previously thought, casting doubts on earlier predictions and even calling into question Einstein's theory of general relativity.

Just as the Universe started after a Big Bang, astronomers are now attempting to study this expansion to predict how the Universe will ultimately end.

The rate of this expansion may eventually tear the Universe apart, forcing it to end in a Big Rip. Alternatively, the Universe could 'shrink', decrease or decay, effectively reversing the Big Bang and destroying the Universe in a Big Crunch. A third theory is described as the Big Freeze.

Many theoretical physicists believe the Universe will end, and it could happen at any point between 2.8 billion years and 22 billion years from now. Certain researchers even suggest the process of its demise has already begun.

So what fate is awaiting our Universe?

"For a long time scientists, including Albert Einstein, thought the Universe was static and infinite," explained Thomas Kitching, lecturer in Astrophysics at University College London.

"Observations have since shown it is in fact expanding, and at an accelerating rate. This means it must have originated from a more compact state that we call the Big Bang, implying that time does have a beginning." And it will likely have an end.

By studying ancient light, astronomers can see the so-called "relic radiation" from the Big Bang, also known as cosmic microwave background. As the name suggests, Einstein’s special theory of relativity, shows that time is relative. Kitching continued: "the faster you move relative to me, the slower time will pass for you relative to my perception of time." This means that in our Universe of expanding galaxies, spinning stars and planets, experiences of time vary and everything’s past, present and future is relative.

Cosmologists have used this theory, as well as data from studies of cosmic background radiation, to determine the ɼosmic age' of the Universe to be around 13.799 billion years old, and this can help predict how, and when, the Universe could end.

Here are the three theories proposing how that end could come to be.

The first theory claims the Universe will end with a Big Rip, as the pull of the Universe's expansion gets stronger than the gravity it contains. This would tear apart galaxies, followed by black holes, stars and even our own planet.

Earth, and humanity with it, could slowly decay into radiation, collapse in on itself or be ripped apart as the Universe's expansion ramps up. This would leave the Universe full of single, disconnected particles.

Until around five billion years ago, the Universe's growth was slow due to its strong gravitational pull. More recently, this expansion increased, with many attributing it to the effects of dark energy. For a Big Rip to occur, dark energy must win in its battle with gravity to such a point that it can rip apart individual atoms.

Last year, Marcelo Disconzi, assistant professor of mathematics at Vanderbilt University in Tennessee, in collaboration with physics professors Thomas Kephart and Robert Scherrer, devised a new mathematical model for the Big Rip.

This model suggests that the expansion of the Universe will eventually become infinite. Previous models largely ignored viscosity, but in Disconzi's hypothesis it is viscosity of the Universe that drives its violent destruction. His theory is based on proposals made by French mathematician André Lichnerowicz in the 50s.

Another theory about the potential end of the Universe relates to the so-called ‘Big Crunch’.

If, instead of expanding forever, matter in the Universe reaches a point where it starts to decrease over time, it could cause gravity to become the dominant force. This would ultimately cause the Universe to shrink and cause stars, planets and entire galaxies to collide into each other and the Universe would, for all intents and purposes, collapse in on itself.

Put simply, if the expansion of the Universe slows to a crawl and the Big Bang happens in reverse, everything will implode back into a singularity.

Researchers in Denmark recently claimed to have proved that this process, known as a ‘phase transition’ could already be occurring in our Universe effectively ‘eating away’ at the cosmos.

A ‘phase transition’ is said to be similar to what happens when water turns to steam, for example. According to the Higgs theory, a phase transition occurred one tenth of a billionth of a second after the Big Bang, causing a shift in the fabric of spacetime.

During this transition, empty space became filled with an invisible substance now known as the Higgs field. If a dense Higgs field exists, the researchers from the University of Southern Denmark, believe a ɻubble' of this state could appear anywhere in the Universe, at any time.

The researchers' equations suggest that this bubble could then expand at the speed of light, entering all space, and turning the Higgs field from the state it is in now into a new one.

The rules of quantum mechanics also suggest random particles can momentarily pop out of a vacuum – something seen regularly in particle physics experiments.

Some argue dark energy could cause such 'quantum fluctuations' which in turn could cause ɺ new Big Bang' to end our timeline and start a new one. This is the least likely of the scenarios, based on what we currently know about physics, but has been speculated.

The third theory states that the Universe could end due to a Big Freeze. Also somewhat conversely called 'Heat Death', this scenario is believed to be the most likely according to what we already know about physics and the Universe. Read more: What is Einstein's theory of relativity?

This term comes from the theory that, in the Universe and other isolated systems, entropy will increase until it reaches a "maximum value". Entropy comes from a principle of thermodynamics that covers energy and specifically refers to the idea that everything in the Universe eventually moves from order to disorder. As a result, entropy is the measurement of that shift.

Once entropy reaches its maximum, theoretical physicists believe that heat in the system will be distributed evenly. This means there would be no more room for usable energy, or heat, to exist and the Universe would die from ‘heat death’. Put simply, mechanical motion within the Universe will cease.

During this Big Freeze, the Universe would, in theory, become so vast that supplies of gas would be spread so thin that no new stars can form. Under that model, time becomes an endless void in which nothing ever happens as there is little to no energy left in the Universe.


The problem of artificial intelligence

Another concern was over artificial intelligence. Here the concern was not so much existential. By this, I mean the speakers were not fearful that some computer was going to wake up into consciousness and decide that the human race needed to be enslaved. Instead, the danger was more subtle but no less potent. Susan Halpern, also one of our greatest non-fiction writers, gave an insightful talk that focused on the artificial aspect of artificial intelligence. Walking us through numerous examples of how "brittle" machine learning algorithms at the heart of modern AI systems are, Halpern was able to pinpoint how these systems are not intelligent at all but carry all the biases of their makers (often unconscious ones). For example, facial recognition algorithms can have a hard time differentiating the faces of women of color, most likely because the "training data sets" the algorithms were taught were not representative of these human beings. But because these machines supposedly rely on data and "data don't lie," these systems get deployed into everything from making decisions about justice to making decisions about who gets insurance. And these are decisions that can have profound effects on people's lives.

Then there was the general trend of AI being deployed in the service of both surveillance capitalism and the surveillance state. In the former, your behavior is always being watched and used against you in terms of swaying your purchasing decisions in the latter, you are always being watched by those in power. Yikes!


Heat Death of the Universe

Decades of observations have only confirmed researchers' findings. All signs now point to a long and lonely death that peters out toward infinity. The scientific term for this fate is “heat death.”

But things will be rather desolate long before that happens.

"Just" a couple trillion years from now, the universe will have expanded so much that no distant galaxies will be visible from our own Milky Way, which will have long since merged with its neighbors . Eventually, 100 trillion years from now, all star formation will cease, ending the Stelliferous Era that’s be running since not long after our universe first formed.

Much later, in the so-called Degenerate Era , galaxies will be gone, too. Stellar remnants will fall apart. And all remaining matter will be locked up inside black holes.

In fact, black holes will be the last surviving sentinels of the universe as we know it. In the Black Hole Era, they’ll be the only “normal” matter left. But eventually, even these titans will disappear, too.

Stephen Hawking predicted that black holes slowly evaporate by releasing their particles into the universe. First, the smaller, solar-mass black holes will vanish. And by a googol years into the future (a 1 followed by 100 zeroes), Hawking radiation will have killed off even the supermassive black holes .

No normal matter will remain in this final “Dark Era” of the universe, which will last far longer than everything that came before it. And the second law of thermodynamics tells us that in this time frame, all energy will ultimately be evenly distributed. The cosmos will settle at its final resting temperature, just above absolute zero, the coldest temperature possible.

If this future seems dark and depressing, take comfort in knowing that every earthling will have died long before we have to worry about it. In fact, on this timescale of trillions of years, even the existence of our entire species registers as but a brief ray of sunlight before an infinite winter of darkness.


Will the Heat Death scenario ever occur or just the Big Freeze? - Astronomy

PITTSTON2SARASOTA

Currently Cosmology has six different theories contemplating the eventual fate of time and space. hence the end of our Universe as we understand it. Some of these theories are more likely and plausible than others but they are all still possible within our current level of scientific comprehension.

(1) THE BIG CRUNCH: The expansion of the Universe begins to slow down as gravity begins to slow and stop the initial expansion from the BIG BANG. Subsequently the expansion reverses into a contraction, our Universe becomes blue shifted(unlike our red shift current state) and will collapse back into a singularity. This theory is now thought unlikely.
Big Crunch - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(2) THE BIG WHIMPER: The Universe expands indefinitely with all energy and matter becoming increasingly chaotic and so dispersed that no physical parameters will have any meaning, this includes time. Everything will basically appear empty and devoid of matter and energy and time. essentially a "heat death" where no energy can be produced and no particles can interact and/or will be left to cause interactions. This is now considered the most likely scenario.
Heat death of the universe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(3) THE BIG RIP: The Universe essentially rips itself apart with Dark Energy overwhelming Gravity as it continues to increase in power while gravity stays constant. This only applies if Dark Energy continues to accelerate the expansion rate of the Universe. Hypothetically our Universe would be destroyed in 20 Billion years as all matter is literally ripped apart and shredded.
Big Rip - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(4) THE BIG FREEZE: The universe fills up with ever more powerful Dark Energy and reaches infinite density while it expands by a smaller finite amount. Time itself siezes up and and any surviving matter is locked in place and unable to move. A local Big Freeze can happen if we live on a Brane or Membrane in higher dimensional space and it's surface begins to vibrate violently. This is similar to the Heat-Death scenario(Big Whimper)
Future of an expanding universe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(5) THE BIG BRAKE: Dark Energy reverses itself stopping the accelerating expansion of the Universe, then stopping it and actually causing an infinite rate of deceleration. All cosmic structures would be subjected to tidal forces of infinite strength but matter would still exist albeit in a far different form and organization. The consequences for time however are unpleasant and it would appear meaningless.
Phys. Rev. D 76, 064032 (2007): Quantum cosmology with a big-brake singularity

(6) THE BIG LURCH: Somehow ordinary matter whips itself up into a frenzy and pressure forces grow infinitely while the density and cosmic expansion rate remain in steady stasis. Time may OR may not continue in this scenario. but this scenario cannot be ruled out and it can occur in as little as nine Million years.
I cannot find a single link for this theory. And I understand little of this theory's premise.

This thread was composed from information from Scientific American Magazine. from the article titled: "COULD TIME END". The Ultimate Doomsday. I understand a lot of it. some just a little and some not at all. Some of the theories seem somewhat the same scenario just packaged a little differently and some parts are just beyond my science comprehension.

ANY and ALL thoughts and/or pet theories are welcomed as I would love to share and extrapolate our own thoughts and scenarios from these 6 basic tenets of the fate of Time and the fate of our Universe.


When will the Universe end

In July, a separate group of experts suggested the universe could be as much as 1.2 billion years younger than the 13.8 billion years old it is widely assumed to be The usual story of the Universe has a beginning, middle, and an end. It began with the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago when the Universe was tiny, hot, and dense We are currently living approximately 13 billion years after the universe's start, but, given the different scenarios for its demise, it's unclear how much longer the universe will persist But according to a new paper, there's one theory for the origins of the universe that predicts time itself will end in just five billion years—coincidentally, right around the time our sun is..

The universe will end in this way, at this time

  • The end result is unknown a simple estimation would have all the matter and space-time in the universe collapse into a dimensionless singularity back into how the universe started with the Big Bang, but at these scales unknown quantum effects need to be considered (see Quantum gravity)
  • The Big Bang Theory is how astronomers believe the universe started but can they figure out when and how it will end? Read More: Scientists measure slow deat..
  • Just as the Big Bang started as a cosmological expansion, this theory assumes that the average density of the universewill be enough to stop its expansion and the universewill begin contracting. The end result is unknown a simple estimation would have all the matter and space-time in the universe collapse into a dimensionless singularity back into how the universe started with the Big Bang, but at these scales unknown quantum effects need to be considered (see Quantum gravity)
  • Edit has been removed. Enjoy reading! I would say that the Big Freeze scenario is the most likely, as the Universe keeps expanding on forever, and ever, and ever, and ever, until nothing but sub-atomic particles remain. I'm no real expert in this.
  • g a model of dark energy with w = −1.5. False vacuum decay may occur in 20 to 30 billion years if Higgs boson field is metastable. Coalescence of Local Group and galaxies outside the Local Super-cluster are no longer accessibl
  • When will the universe end? Not for at least 2.8 billion years Physics 25 February 201
  • And according to the physics, sometime in the next 3.7 billion years, we'll cross that time barrier, and the universe will end for us. Now, it's very likely that we just don't have the understanding of physics to accurately describe this phenomenon yet, but it's certainly a scary prospect

What if the Universe has no end? - BBC Futur

  1. Some 13.8 billion years ago, our universe was born in the Big Bang, and it's been expanding ever since. Until a few decades ago, it looked like that expansion would eventually end. Astronomers'..
  2. In this Big Freeze, the universe ends up uniformly cold, dead and empty. After the development of thermodynamics in the early 1800s, heat death looked like the only possible way the universe..
  3. As Mack counsels, whatever it looks like, the end probably won't be nigh for at least 200 billion years. Nature 584 , 187 (2020) doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-02338-
  4. Scientists agree that the universe began with a Big Bang, but how will our universe end? They have several different ideas
  5. This is the End: Universe Will Die in Last Black Dwarf Supernova, Study Claims Videos: Astronomers Spot Galaxy Similar to Milky Way in Early Universe Spectacular Phoenix Stellar Stream Proves to Be a Remnant of Early Universe Relics. Tags: stars, science, universe, Space. Track Do not track Community standardsDiscussion
  6. 2 trillion years is functionally the beginning of the end. Though the universe might well be infinite today, by around 2 trillion years, it's pretty clear that we're going to have to do the.

When The Universe Will End - YouTube. Watch later. Share. Copy link. Info. Shopping. Tap to unmute. If playback doesn't begin shortly, try restarting your device. An error occurred The universe is still expanding, 13.8 billion years ago from the Big Bang, so technically speaking - there are no borders. One fact that is hard to forget is the one that suggests how the resources of our universe are finite. Our Sun, once it spends all the hydrogen will turn into a red giant and grow so big its size will reach Earth and beyond Home Articles When Will the Universe End? When Will the Universe End? January 1, 2020 Articles (Last Updated On: December 30, 2019 . This very dark future is called the Big Freeze. The False Vacuum. There is also the chance that this elusive dark energy will matter in the end. Other scenarios that have been considered have are assuming that our universe is accounted for

How Will the Universe End? Live Scienc

  • The Universe expands forever, resulting in a Big Freeze. Everything starts out the same as above, only this time, the amount of matter-and-energy is insufficient to counteract the expansion
  • The universe is dictated by the principle of fatality: The moment something comes into existence is the same moment it starts inching closer to death. Just like the creatures and objects it harbours, the universe too has an expiry date. Humans die, animals, stars die too. Soon? A group of scientists claim to know when the universe will perish, and it is not sometime soon
  • The heat death of the universe is the end state of a universe that's ruled by accelerated expansion forever. Every gravitationally bound system — galaxies, clusters of galaxies — gets more and more isolated from one another
  • Finally, our universe would end in an explosion, a singularity of literally infinite energy. Current theories predict that if this so-called Big Rip is in our future, it will take another 22 billion years to arrive
  • The end of the Universe is the topic of Katie's new book, and you can pre-order it now, and it comes out in just 3 short months: on August 4th
  • Photo credit: Mina De La O/Getty By New Scientist We're safe for now. The way the universe is expanding, it won't be tearing itself apart for at least a few billion years. For those of you only now discovering that such an end was a possibility, here's a little background. Observations of stars.

Time Will End in Five Billion Years, Physicists Predic

Many theoretical physicists believe the Universe will end, and it could happen at any point between 2.8 billion years and 22 billion years from now. Certain researchers even suggest the process of.. This is an open Universe, and the end is known as the Big Freeze. And if the critical density was just right, the Universe's expansion goes on forever, but it's always slowing down, reaching a. The utmost shut down of the Universe is an imminent event, according to both science and the Bible. Although it may be impossible to know exactly how it will happen, it may be a lot easier to find out when the horrifying event will come. The Universe will end in the next few trillions of year

HOW WILL THE UNIVERSE END?: 1. [Say (to them): Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days and you set up rivals (in worship). 2. [He placed therein (i.e. the earth) firm mountains from above it, and He blessed it, and measured therein its. 3. [Then He Istawa (Rose Over). . From that moment on, the universe will be dead and silent. It's hard to imagine anything happening after that

As it comes to its end, the universe will be unrecognisable from how it is today, and humanity will almost certainly have come to an end long before. The cosmos will be almost entirely dark. The end of the universe as we know it will not come with a bang. Most stars will slowly fizzle as their temperatures fade to zero Just as the Big Bang started as a cosmological expansion, this theory assumes that the average density of the universe will be enough to stop its expansion and the universe will begin contracting. The end result is unknown a simple estimation would have all the matter and space-time in the universe collapse into a dimensionless singularity back into how the universe started with the Big Bang, but at these scales unknown quantum effects need to be considered (see Quantum gravity) Since this is incredibly hard to predict. In any case, it will probably take billions and billions of years to reach any of these scenarios. Some believe it will be as long as 1 googol years (that's 1 one with 100 zeroes after) so its safe to say it won't end for a really, really long time. Answer link

When will the universe end? - Horse

  • Well anyway the universe won't end in any literal sense, the universe will just become very boring eventually. May 19, 2018 #3 Jimmy87. 648 11. kurros said: Well it's a bit of a hyperbolic thing to say, and a bit of an arbitrary definition of end
  • Yahoo Answers is shutting down on May 4th, 2021 (Eastern Time) and beginning April 20th, 2021 (Eastern Time) the Yahoo Answers website will be in read-only mode
  • Let's assume the Big Freeze model is correct for the purpose of this question (but remember that this isn't a given in reality, the actual answer may be never), and we will assume proton decay. Here are some of the major events we have to look fo..
  • Rate of expansion since the birth of the universe 15 billion years ago. The more shallow the curve, the faster the rate of expansion. At about 7.5 billion years ago, objects in the universe legally separated and did it fast. Why? I don't know. Trust issues, or maybe they met a younger universe. Or dark energy. Credit: Ann Feild (STScI

Our universe is racing toward its destruction as we speak. The end is not going to be especially pleasant, but when that end will happen is still a point of contention amongst cosmologists Not only are scientists unsure how the universe will end, they aren't even sure it will end at all. Several possibilities for the fate of our universe have been bandied about

There is a partial dissolution of the Universe periodically, every 4.32 Billion Years. No matter how long all this may seem to be, in the context of eternity, this is but a flash in the pan. Our Universe, The Source of the Universe is practically Infinite Two weeks before his death, Stephen Hawking predicted 'the end of the universe' Published Mon, Mar 19 2018 9:55 AM EDT Updated Mon, Mar 19 2018 12:23 PM EDT. Sam Meredith @smeredith19 The universe has basically sat down on the sofa, pulled up a blanket and is about to nod off. The Big Bounce is a bit more optimistic in that it says the universe will never really end Eventually, billions or even trillions of years from now, the universe is going to end. Astrophysicists don't know exactly how the universe will end, but they have some ideas. A group from Munich.. There are many different theories as to how it will end, and they all depend on how much matter there is in the universe. Some people think the universe is as it is, and always will be - in this case the universe will never end, however this doesn't agree with the big bang, which says the universe had a beginning

Unfortunately for science fiction fans, the current thinking among scientists is that the end of the universe will be pretty boring. We're probably not going to have a Big Crunch, Mack says These progress from the raucous opening moments of the Big Bang, through our current era, to a succession of ages that will result in the still endpoint of everything. This endpoint marks the time when cosmologists conjecture the universe will hit its final state, a mind-boggling 101000 years from now.

When Will The Universe End? - YouTub

  • The universe's end is known as 'heat death,' where the universe will be mostly black holes and burned-out stars, Caplan explained in the statement. I became a physicist for one reason
  • The way the universe is expanding, it won't be tearing itself apart for at least a few billion years. For those of you only now discovering that such an end was a possibility, here's a little.
  • Of course, now, thanks to science, we know the answer: it's fire. Definitely fire. In about 5 billion years, the Sun will swell to its red giant phase, engulf the orbit of Mercury and perhaps Venus, and leave the Earth a charred, lifeless, magma-covered rock
  • As difficult as it is to imagine, the story of the Marvel Universe will eventually end, too. Although it has been going on for 80 years and featured thousands of characters in tales told by Jack Kirby, Stan Lee and hundreds of other creators, the Marvel Universe will cease to exist, and heroes, villains, planets and galaxies will die without hope of resurrection

, researchers said, but there's hope the universe could expand infinitely If the geometry of space is open (and curved like a horse saddle), the universe will continue to expand forever, whether there is dark energy present or not. If it is, then dark energy will drive the expansion. The result? Heat death, the Big Freeze or the Big Rip is imminent. Here the universe's density is less than the critical density

How the universe will end: We could collapse, be ripped apart or decay into nothing - and the process may have started. Munich group, Kurzgesagt, has created a video of the leading scenario Wait, start at the beginning. Of everything. The Big Bang theory says that the universe came into being from a single, unimaginably hot and dense point (aka, a singularity) more than 13 billion years ago. It didn't occur in an already existing space. Rather, it initiated the expansion—and cooling—of space itself So you've decided to visit the end of the universe? Well, bully for you. Some folks might call it a spoiler, but I say we should skip to the end just to see where all of this is going

When the universe will end has been a topic of discussion among theoretical physicists for some time. What they can agree on is, it's likely to occur somewhere between 2.5-22 billion years from now When Will the Universe End? The Big Bang Theory is how astronomers believe the universe started but can they figure out when and how it will end? By Julian Huguet. Published on 8/14/2015 at 5:15 AM . Dark energy is a strange phenomenon that scientists believe permeates the universe. Until 1998 we thought that the universe must work a bit like a ball that you throw into the sky. The ball moves up, but at some point, it has come down again. But the expansion of the universe is actually speeding up So, you end up with a universe that's just very cold, and dark, and empty, and expanding all the time. That's the most accepted theory for the end of the universe. My name is Katie Mack. I'm an assistant professor of physics at North Carolina State University and my book is called The End of Everything (Astrophysically Speaking) The ultimate fate of the universe depends on - shape of the universe, amount of dark energy it holds, and change in its expansion rate. Based on these three things, cosmologists have come up with three possible scenarios that explain how the end of universe could come to be. They are: the Big Freeze, the Big Rip and the Big Crunch

Outside of science fiction, the end of the universe is inevitable. The most likely scenario is the heat death of the universe, where increasing entropy will allow no more work to be done in the universe, and the universe will grow cold. This is a shameless plug for my book, Metaparadise, where the plot lasts until the end of the universe All the universe will recollapse to a big crunch. Initially the universe was very hot, then it expanded and cooled down. In this scenario, it will happen in reverse. The universe will contract it.. As we've seen in other essays in Naturally Curious, science has long been trying to discover where our Universe came from, and it's a question that cosmologists continue to grapple with.While we do know it started with the Big Bang, an even tougher and arguably more cogent question remains: where is it going? Clearly, theories about the end of the Universe remain untestable—it hasn't.

Our Universe began 13.8 billion years ago and it has been expanding ever since. Is it destined to expand forever or will it suffer a more crushing end? Astronomer So we all might as well get used to the fact that the world is going to end one day. Earth is not going to be here forever. That is a hard fact to swallow sometimes. But even though science tries to answer the question of when the end will come, the Bible has much to say. The destiny of the universe rests in the hand of Almighty God The Big Bang Theory is how astronomers believe the universe started but can they figure out when and how it will end? Read More: Scientists measure sl..

End of the Sun - 7.5 billion - 1 trillion years When the Sun becomes a red giant, that's only the beginning of the end. With the end of its hydrogen, the Sun will have switched to fusing. Follow this journey to the end and you can lay waste to the Universe in just a few seconds. It's all to do with the second law of thermodynamics, which was framed in the mid-19th Century. The. THE END OF THE WORLD will see the Universe evolve into a terrifying state of absolute darkness known as the heat death or Big Freeze of the cosmos, according to particle physicist and cosmologist.

It defines everything as mortal but, because of the inevitable outcome of the universe's end, it also defines this moment of life and energy and vibrancy as quite a spectacular one because of. There are several models on the universe that will describe what the universe (or universes) looks like and how they will evolve in time. The problem with these models is the variable time. If you have an endless time or an endless amount of universes, you end up with an endless amount of possibilities, which will result in all things will eventually happen In cosmology, the end of the universe is as inevitable and inescapable as the laws of nature that predicted its birth. The observation that the expansion of the universe is accelerating came as a surprise even to the researchers who discovered it. Now, that discovery has earned the Nobel Prize in physics for 2011 The Universe really will come to an end one way or another, and we have an idea how - five ideas, actually. In this week's episode of the Science Focus Podcast, astrophysicist Dr Katie Mack talks to us about the future of the cosmos. She dives into these five possible apocalypses, from the Universe gradually fading out to the 'quantum bubble of death'

One of the furthest reaches of time we dare to predict is the end of the universe. As far as we know this is the end of not only life as we know it but everything that's ever existed How to Survive the End of the Universe 1. Introduction 2. How will our universe end, and what does it mean for us? 2.1. The end of the universe is not the end of the multiverse or of existence 2.2. Surviving the end of the universe is not immortality, but it is one step closer 2.3. A slow end, or heat death 2.4. Abrupt end 2.5. Other limits of existence 3. . Overview of ideas about surviving. After all, predicting the end of days is a tricky business. The Mayan Calendar. The end of the world was predicted to occur on December 21, 2012, when one of the great cycles in the Mayan calendar came to an end. In the run-up to the day, the internet abounded with predictions about an apocalypse happening on 12/21/12

Ultimate fate of the universe - Wikipedi

A Complete Timeline of the Future of Our Universe Here's what's in store for our universe in the next 100 trillion years. / Hard Science / End Of The Universe / Solar System / Universe The end of the world or the universe is mentioned by many religious texts. Scientists might think that the universe will last an indefinite amount of time but I don't think that any of these estimations are accurate because ultimately, a supreme being will make that decision Heat death, aka the Big Freeze, when the universe eventually runs out of free energy and reaches absolute zero and maximum entropy, is one of the possible ways the universe might end. If Caplan's..

How will the universe end? When will that happen? - Quor

  • So, the universe had a beginning, about 13.8 billion years ago. It is not constant and unchanging and therefore may someday cease to be. There are a number of theories about how the universe may end, some more dramatic than others. The first theory involves the heat-death of the universe, or the 'big freeze'
  • We are currently living approximately 13 billion years after the universe's start, but, given the different scenarios for its demise, it's unclear how much longer the universe will persist. In the first scenario — the universe bows out of existence due to heat death — all the stars in the cosmos will burn up their fuel, with most of them leaving behind dense remnants known as white dwarfs and neutron stars
  • When the universe ceases it's quest for the future, through the expressed living will of the universe, us and every other living part of the universe, so the universe will end. The universe relatively speaking is infinite because time is life and life is time, it is all just physics, including the weird bits in quantum space and in null sp
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  • You know the Big Bank theory, but what about when that elastic action springs backwards? The universe may collapse on itself in a far more violent reaction..
  • They too will eventually evaporate and there will be a universe with just not very much in it. However this will take trillions of years, and the universe is only a few billion years old. There are other possible scenarios, including the big-rip where dark energy grows like a monster and eventually rips everything to bits - from galaxies, to stars and planets and eventually atoms
  • The actual size of the observable universe is 46 billion light-years in any direction, even though the universe began only 13.8 billion years ago, Mack said

We don't really know enough about the universe to say but in short the answer is not for a long long long time yet. Hundreds of billions of years at least Also, the expanding nature of our Universe complicates understanding. A photon travelling for 13.7 billion years traverses more than 13.7 billion light years in distance, because the Universe is.

The question of whether the world will end is a perennial one, with The End sometimes forecast to come within a human lifetime or two. This is an ultra-important question, but not the biggest possible one: we can widen our question to whether The Universe will end. Even posing this question is not very straightforward, as The Universe has come. 10 Ways the Universe Could End 1. The Big Rip 2. The Big Freeze This scenario, which is also known as Heat Death, is based on Newton's second law of thermodynamics. 3. The Big Slurp The Higgs boson was first theorized in the 1960s, but its existence wasn't confirmed until July 4, 2012. 4. Barrier. . We aren't sure when or how exactly, but there are many theories. You might have heard that our universe is expanding. It's true — everything in the universe is moving away from everything else as the universe expands A decillion (10^33) years into the future, black holes will dominate our universe, ushering in a new era called the Black Hole Era. But that's not the end — even black holes die, eventually

Future of an expanding universe - Wikipedi

The idea is that if there's more stuff around in the cosmos than a certain value, the universe will collapse in on itself. This is known as the Big Crunch , a very popular theory even if it. END OF THE WORLD: THIS is how Earth and the universe will be DESTROYED, astronomer claims ONE thing is certain for the future of the universe: it will eventually DIE, confirmed a top astronomer 2. The big crunch. This is the least terrifying end-of-universe scenario. If astrophysicists are wrong about dark energy and there's actually less of it than we think, or its grasp on matter. At the end of the 1000 years, Satan will be released, defeated again, and then cast into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:7-10). Then, after a final judgment by God, the end of the world described in 2 Peter 3:10 occurs. The Bible tells us several things about this event. First, it will be cataclysmic in scope Magazine: 1 August 2020. Magazine. Issue: 1 August 2020. Lead book review. Alexander Masters. Will the universe end with a bang ora bounce? Or a crunch or a rip? Katie Mack explores the.

When will the universe end? Not for at least 2

When nucleons are gone, black holes will finally dominate the universe from 10 40 years after the Big Bang to 10 100 years. At this point, we are talking about times so long that it is impossible for our minds to wrap around them. But for a period longer than the universe has existed so far, the only structures to speak of will be black holes the evolution of our universe is the Big Bang theory, which states that the universe began as an incredibly hot and dense point roughly 13.7 billion years ago before expanding into a large, unexplored cosmos home to an unknown amount of planets and systems The End of Everything Katie Mack Scribner, $26. Eventually, the universe will end. And it won't be pretty. The universe is expanding at an accelerating clip, and that evolution, physicists. Some say the universe will end with a new Big Bang. Others say the cosmos will eventually succumb to entropy. But what if neither of those things happens? A recent theory says the universe will.

10 Theories On How The Universe Will End - Listvers

A lovely little, concise read describing the universes end. An almost poetic writing on how the universe will blink out of existence, a heat death and ending of everything. I've always been a fan of Brian's writing and this is just as great as all of his other work The Big Rip theory speculates the end of the universe will be the result of mysterious dark energy, which will increase as the universe expands, eventually pulling the entire universe apart—every galaxy, every planet, and even every atom. And there are other speculative ideas. But let's discuss one more idea for the end of the universe This means that they will die in this way, the 1% of the stars are estimated to exist throughout the universe. A blackness to infinity . Caplan has been calculated that all the dwarfs black designed to exploit what have they done in 10^to 32,000 years. Therefore, from that moment on, the universe will be dead and in the silence The end of the Universe may be a common feature in science fiction, but this one isn't a crisis that can be averted by a team of superheroes. The Universe really will come to an end one way or another, and we have an idea how - five ideas, actually Just like everything in life, the universe will eventually meet its demise. And while this event is not expected to happen for some time (estimates range from 2.8 to 22 billion years from now), scientists are wasting no time in theorizing about the end of everything. When scientists first started researching the beginning of the

The Big Freeze: How the universe will die Astronomy

That would mean that the big rip never happens, and the heat death of the Universe occurs instead. To be clear, it's pretty unlikely the Universe will actually be done in 2.8 billion years, especially seeing as our Sun is expected to be around for at least another 5 billion years. Caldwell called the lower bound very conservative At this point, the universe's final temperature will hover just above absolute zero. The Big Bang's Accelerating Expansion. Some 13.8 billion years ago, our universe was born in the Big Bang, and it's been expanding ever since. Until a few decades ago, it looked like that expansion would eventually end This story comes from our special January 2021 issue, The Beginning and the End of the Universe. Click here to purchase the full issue. The universe, like everything else, was born, matures. Yet life's 4-billion year rule on this planet hasn't come uncontested. Evolution can't keep pace with rapid environmental change or protect us from certain extraordinary events. At least five separate extinction episodes have threatened life on Earth, destruction brought on by both cosmic bombardments and the planet's own internal turmoil.. As recently as 251 million years ago, the Permian.

At the end of the 19 th century, figures like Swinburne and Henry Adams expressed similar anguish at what then seemed to be the certain heat-death of the universe from entropy End of the Universe has shoot-em up in its haunted, black blood. From very early stages, enemies begin to crowd the limited space provided. They mostly either sit stationary and fire like a turret, or swarm you in a constant, relentless, dog fight Universe will continue to get colder and colder until it zero kelvin (or absolute zero), where it reachs the maximum state of entropy. Finally there we can see no light seen as the expansion rate is greater than the speed of the light. All activities in the universe ceases, and the universe is dead forever. 4. The Big Slurp. Last but not the least The end of universe will occur, as believed by scientists, when it would not have any more capacity to expand and would reach its limit by exploding killing all life forms and life-sustaining conditions. 1. God will End the Universe Someday End of the Universe By Rehan Ahmed Awan There are different theories about the end of the universe. Some are as follows: Big Crunch Gravity will squeeze down the universe when it will attain its maximum size. All the matter will fall on each other. Big Chill The universe will go on expanding an In her new book, The End of Everything (Astrophysically Speaking), Katie Mack explains five ways the universe could end. Digital Trends interviewed her


The Big Crunch

Astrophysicists long considered the most likely denouement to be a reversal of the Big Bang — the Big Crunch. Outside our cosmic neighbourhood, every galaxy is zooming away from us a clear sign of expansion. If the Universe holds enough matter, including dark matter, the combined gravitational attraction of everything will gradually halt this expansion and precipitate the ultimate collapse. Over time, galaxies, then individual stars, will smash into each other more frequently, killing off any life on nearby planets. In the final moments, as densities and temperatures soar in a contracting inferno, all that remains will extinguish in a single point.

But dark energy might mean that a different end awaits. The early years of the Universe’s evolution were determined by the amount of matter it held over the past few billion years, dark energy has begun to dominate, pushing the universe outwards. Current data from the European Space Agency’s Planck telescope and other sources are consistent with this expansion continuing forever.

Einstein, Bohr and the war over quantum theory

Called the Heat Death or Big Freeze, this apocalypse will be “slow and agonizing”, Mack writes. In thermodynamic terms, she explains, the Universe will approach a state of minimum temperature and maximum entropy. As everything gets farther and farther apart, the material of dead stars will disperse so that new stars can’t form, and the galaxies they’re part of will gradually stop growing. It’s like a suffocation of all astrophysical activity, as the fuel for growth and reproduction becomes so diffuse as to be unusable. It is an end “marked by increasing isolation, inexorable decay, and an eons-long fade into darkness”.

The third demise that Mack discusses is the Big Rip. This is in store if dark energy accelerates expansion even more than is currently expected. As the Universe balloons, eventually, gravitational forces won’t be able to keep galactic clusters together. Stars will be stripped away from each other, and solar systems such as ours won’t have the strength to stay together. The remaining stars and planets will explode. Finally, the last atoms will be ripped apart.

The latest measurements point to a Heat Death, but a Big Crunch or Big Rip are within their uncertainties.

The final doomsday scenario that Mack describes is extremely unlikely: vacuum decay. A tiny bubble of ‘true vacuum’ could form, owing to instability in the field associated with the Higgs boson. That might happen if, say, a black hole evaporates in just the wrong way. Such a bubble would expand at the speed of light, destroying everything, until it cancels the universe. Vacuum decay might already have begun in some distant place. We won’t see it coming.

Not to worry, though. As Mack counsels, whatever it looks like, the end probably won’t be nigh for at least 200 billion years.