What is the exact time of sun stay in each zodiac every year on sidereal year duration?

What is the exact time of sun stay in each zodiac every year on sidereal year duration?

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I tried to reverse engineer from astro-chart times at which sun stays in a zodiac. Here is the list.

Sun_Stay_zodiac timeofstay_sec timeofstay_days 1 Aries 2672700 30 day 22 hour 00 minute 2 Taurus 2714700 31 day 10 hour 05 minute 3 Gemini 2734080 31 day 15 hour 28 minute 4 Cancer 2719440 31 day 11 hour 24 minute 5 Leo 2680080 31 day 00 hour 28 minute 6 Virgo 2586960 29 day 22 hour 00 minute 7 Libra 2626020 30 day 09 hour 27 minute 8 Scorpio 2548020 29 day 11 hour 47 minute 9 Sagittarius 2533080 29 day 07 hour 38 minute 10 Capricorn 2544240 29 day 10 hour 44 minute 11 Aquarius 2576520 29 day 19 hour 42 minute 12 Pisces 2622540 30 day 22 hour 25 minute

Since the orbit of earth is elliptical and therefore also variation is orbital speed the stay of sun in each zodiac is different i.e Maximum at Gemini and after 6 months minimum at Sagittarius. However when I add them up sums up to 31558380 seconds which is 230.495 seconds than time in seconds in sidereal year ie 31558149.504 Now what I am looking for is more exact time duration of sun stay in each zodiac that includes seconds. I hope this data that I have in my question will help others too.

A sidereal zodiac is not the same as the IAU constellations but corresponds more closely to them than the Western tropical zodiac does, e.g. the eastern edge of Virgo remains near Spica despite precession.

I assumed equal 30° blocks of ecliptic longitude with the J285.25 equinox as origin (Lahiri ayanamsa). Your local tradition may differ slightly, but any difference should affect all signs equally and have little effect on Sun residence times.

I computed these statistics for the years 1970-2070 using Skyfield and the DE430 ephemeris:

mean stdev mean seconds days 1 2667075 ±186 30.8689 2 2702097 ±174 31.2743 3 2717490 ±139 31.4524 4 2708635 ±122 31.3499 5 2678191 ±139 30.9976 6 2635085 ±167 30.4987 7 2591328 ±182 29.9922 8 2558345 ±168 29.6105 9 2544241 ±125 29.4472 10 2552351 ±101 29.5411 11 2580755 ±128 29.8698 12 2622569 ±167 30.3538

Gravitational interactions with other planets tend to make any given year slightly longer or shorter than the mean sidereal year of 31558150 seconds. For the same 100 years as above, I computed a standard deviation of ±320 seconds in sidereal year length.


The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year. The paths of the Moon and visible planets are also within the belt of the zodiac. [1]

In Western astrology, and formerly astronomy, the zodiac is divided into twelve signs, each occupying 30° of celestial longitude and roughly corresponding to the constellations: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. [2] [3]

These astrological signs form a celestial coordinate system, or even more specifically an ecliptic coordinate system, which takes the ecliptic as the origin of latitude and the Sun's position at vernal equinox as the origin of longitude. [4]


There are three broad perspectives on the astrological ages:

    are interested in the ages because some researchers believe that ancient civilizations often depicted cultural references to the ages. Archeoastronomers in general do not 'believe' in astrology, but they study the cultural traditions of societies that did refer extensively to astrology.
  1. Astrologers have been interested in relating world history to the astrological ages since the late 19th century [5] however, most astrologers study horoscopes, not astrological ages.
  2. The general public has become aware of the Age of Aquarius since it was publicized in the musical Hair. [6]

Contentious aspects of the astrological ages Edit

Definitive details on the astrological ages are lacking, and consequently most details available about the astrological ages are disputed. The 20th century British astrologer Charles Carter stated that

It is probable that there is no branch of Astrology upon which more nonsense has been poured forth than the doctrine of the precession of the equinoxes. [7]

In 2000 Neil Spencer in his book True as the Stars Above expressed a similar opinion about the astrological ages. Spencer singles out the astrological ages as being "fuzzy", "speculative", and the least-defined area of astrological lore. [8] Derek and Julia Parker claim that it is impossible to state the exact date for the start of any astrological age and acknowledge that many astrologers believe the Age of Aquarius has arrived while many claim the world is at the end of the Age of Pisces. [9]

Ray Grasse states in Signs of the Times - Unlocking the Symbolic Language of World Events that "there is considerable dispute over the exact starting and ending times for the different Great Ages." [10] Paul Wright in The Great Ages and Other Astrological Cycles believes that much of the uncertainty related to the astrological ages is because many astrologers have a poor understanding of the meaning of the astrological symbolism and "even poorer historical knowledge". [11]

Consensus approach to the astrological ages Edit

Though so many issues are contentious or disputed, there are two aspects of the astrological ages that have virtually unanimous consensus—firstly, the claimed link of the astrological ages to the axial precession of the Earth and commonly referred to as precession of the equinoxes [12] secondly, that, due to the nature of the precession of the equinoxes, the progression of the ages proceeds in reverse direction through the zodiacal signs. [13]

Ages of equal or variable lengths Edit

Astrologers use many ways to divide the Great Year into twelve astrological ages. There are two popular methods. One method is to divide the Great Year into twelve astrological ages of approximately equal lengths of around 2156 years per age based on the vernal equinox moving through the sidereal zodiac. [14] Another method is to significantly vary the duration of each astrological age based on the passage of the vernal equinox measured against the actual zodiacal constellations. [15] Each of those twelve sections of the Great Year can be called either an astrological age, Precessional Age, or a Great Month. [16]

The method based on the zodiacal constellations has a flaw in that from the reckoning of classical-era astronomer / astrologers like Claudius Ptolemy, many constellations overlap, a problem only eliminated in the past 200 years by the adoption of official constellation boundaries. For example, by 2700 CE the vernal point will have moved into Aquarius, but from a classical-era point of view, the vernal point will also point to Pisces due to the pre-boundary overlap. [17]

Age transitions Edit

Many astrologers consider the entrance into a new astrological age a gradual transition called a "cusp". For example, Ray Grasse states that an astrological age does not begin at an exact day or year. [18] Paul Wright states that a transition effect does occur at the border of the astrological ages. Consequently, the beginning of any age cannot be defined to a single year or a decade but blend its influences with the previous age for a period of time until the new age can stand in its own right. [19]

Many astrologers believe that the world is transitioning from the Age of Pisces to the Age of Aquarius, [20] which is claimed to explain that developments in the world today can be aligned to Pisces (i.e. continuing strong religious influences especially from Christianity) and Aquarius (traditional archetypes associated with Aquarius include electricity, computers, and democracy). [21] A few astrologers consider the last c. 10 degrees of a given age (c. 720 years) as the time period during which the new age starts to make visible its influences, also called "orb of influence". In Nicholas Campion's The Book of World Horoscopes there are six pages listing researchers and their proposed dates for the start of the Age of Aquarius indicating that many researchers believe that each age commences at an exact date. [22]

Albert Amao PhD states that the transition period between any two ages occurs over a one degree (1°) orb to either side of the point of intersection of two adjoining zodiacal constellations. As one degree is approximately 72 years, Amao has a transition period between ages of 144 years. [23]

Other opinions on the astrological ages Edit

Ages exactly 2,000 years each Edit

Many astrologers find ages too erratic based on either the vernal point moving through the randomly sized zodiacal constellations or sidereal zodiac and, instead, round all astrological ages to exactly 2000 years each. In this approach the ages are usually neatly aligned so that the Aries age is found from 2000 BC to AD 1, Pisces age AD 1 to AD 2000, the Aquarian Age AD 2000 - AD 4000, and so on. [24] This approach is inconsistent with the precession of the equinoxes. Based on precession of the equinoxes, there is a one-degree shift approximately every 72 years, so a 30-degree movement requires 2160 years to complete.

Ages involving the opposite sign Edit

An established school of thought is that an age is also influenced by the sign opposite to the one of the astrological age. Referring back to the precession of the Equinoxes, as the Sun crosses one constellation in the Northern Hemisphere's spring Equinox (21 March), it will cross the opposite sign in the spring Equinox in the Southern Hemisphere (21 September). For instance, the Age of Pisces is complemented by its opposite astrological sign of Virgo (the Virgin) so a few refer to the Piscean age as the 'Age of Pisces-Virgo'. [25] Adopting this approach, the Age of Aquarius would become the Age of Aquarius-Leo. In his writings Ray Grasse also espouses the link between each sign of the zodiac and its opposite sign. [26]

Mayan Long Count calendar and precession Edit

William Sullivan in The Secret of the Incas claims there is a direct connection between the history of the Inca Empire and precession of the equinoxes. John Major Jenkins in 'Maya Cosmogenesis 2012' believes that the Mayan Long Count Calendar is based on precession of the equinoxes and solstices. [27] Jenkins believes that the Maya related the precession of the winter solstice sunrise against the Milky Way—an event which is currently developing and supposedly instrumental in mankind's spiritual renewal. [28]

Hipparchus Edit

The great demarcation point in the history of the astrological ages is around 127 BC when the Greek astronomer-astrologer Hipparchus from observation discovered that the great immovable sphere of fixed stars was not fixed but slowly moving eastwards due to what is now known as precession of the equinoxes. It is possible that some other astronomers before Hipparchus had also noticed the phenomenon, but it is Hipparchus who is credited with this discovery. (See ancient Mesopotamia.)

This discovery by Hipparchus is not entirely unexpected as Hipparchus is considered to have been the greatest observational astronomer of his era, until Tycho Brahe in the 16th century CE. What is highly contentious in modern times is the claim by many that observation of the effects of precession of the equinoxes was known well before the time of Hipparchus and his contemporaries in Greece or even Mesopotamia.

Possible pre-Hipparchian recognition of precession Edit

Giorgio de Santillana (1902 – 1974) became professor of the History of Science in the School of Humanities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1954, and along with Hertha von Dechend they published a book entitled Hamlet's Mill, An Essay on Myth and the Frame of Time in 1969. It was an attempt to marry science and mythology that had become separated by the ancient Greeks. Santillana and von Dechend believed that the old mythological stories handed down from antiquity were not random fictitious tales but were accurate depictions of celestial cosmology clothed in tales to aid their oral transmission. The chaos, monsters, and violence in ancient myths are representative of the forces that shape each age. They believed that ancient myths are the remains of preliterate astronomy that became lost with the rise of the Greco-Roman civilization.

Santillana and von Dechend state that ancient myths have no historical basis but a cosmological one based on a primitive form of astrology. They recognized the importance of the heliacally rising constellation as markers for the astrological ages and claimed that knowledge of this phenomenon had been known for thousands of years previously. They claim that to understand ancient thinking it is necessary to understand astrology, not the modern sun-sign or horoscopic astrology, but the astrology of ancient times which was the lingua franca of ancient times. [29]

They go further and state that our knowledge of the dawn of astrology and its relationship to ancient myths and star names is limited, and only extends back to about 2100 BC, which was during the Renaissance of Sumerian Culture we are not able, they say, to examine older material on the subject. In Hamlet's Mill it is claimed that the ancient Greeks knew of three successive destructions that correlate to three ages, and that since the beginning of history the vernal point has moved through Taurus, Aries, and Pisces. Hesiod in Works and Days refers to five successive ages. [29]

As early as 1811, modern researchers were examining evidence for knowledge of precession of the equinoxes and astrological ages before Hipparchus. Sir William Drummond published Oedipus Judaicus - Allegory in the Old Testament in 1811. Drummond expounds on his hypothesis that a greater part of the Hebrew Scriptures are merely allegorical writings that hide the true content. Furthermore, the Orientalists were mainly concerned with astronomy and most of their ancient myths are really disguised astronomical records. [30] Drummond believed that the 49th chapter of Genesis contains prophecies allied to astronomy and that the twelve tribes of Israel represented the 12 zodiacal signs. [31]

Drummond makes his case that at the time of Abraham, the Amorites first recorded the shift from the Age of Taurus to the Age of Aries as represented by the year commencing with the Ram (Aries) rather than the bull (Taurus). The Book of Joshua indicates that by the time of Moses the equinoxes had already shifted from Taurus to Aries, as Moses had ordained that the civil year should commence with the month of Nisan (Aries) rather than the month of Taurus. The feast of the Passover is probably a celebration of the Age of Aries with the Paschal Lamb representative of Aries, traditionally associated with the symbol of the ram or sheep. [32]

Drummond also hypothesizes that most number references in ancient texts were coded to hide their real value by multiples of 1,000. For example, in the Old Testament Joshua commanded 30,000 men, and he slew 12,000 inhabitants of the city of Ai. The historian Berosus stated the Babylonians commenced astronomical observations 49,000 years (7 × 7 x 1000) before Alexander the Great. [33] Most early references were related to 7 (Sun, Moon, and five visible planets), 12 (number of zodiacal signs and months per year), 30 (degrees per sign of the zodiac), and higher combinations of these numbers and other numbers associated with astronomical observations and astrology.

The problem of understanding the exact nature of ancient astrology is that it was only partly documented, leaving the question of the extent of their undocumented astrological knowledge. Michael Baigent in From the Omens of Babylon: Astrology and Ancient Mesopotamia suggests that there is evidence that there was probably an older or parallel oral tradition of astrology at the time of publication of Enuma Anu Enlil [34] believed published over the period (1595–1157 BC). The ancient Mesopotamians believed that history repeated itself after a massive cycle of many years. [35]

Post-Hipparchus Edit

Trepidation Edit

In the early post-Hipparchus period, two schools of thought developed about the slow shift of the fixed sphere of stars as discovered by Hipparchus. One school believed that at 1 degree shift per 100 years, the sphere of fixed stars would return to its starting point after 36,000 years. The trepidation school believed that the fixed stars first moved one way, then moved the other way - similar to a giant pendulum. It was believed that the 'swinging' stars first moved 8 degrees one direction, then reversed this 8 degrees travelling the other direction.

Theon of Alexandria in the 4th century AD includes trepidation when he wrote Small Commentary to the Handy Tables. In the 5th century AD, the Greek Neoplatonist philosopher Proclus mentions that both theories were being discussed. The Indians around the 5th century AD preferred the trepidation theory but because they had observed the movement of the fixed stars by 25 degrees since ancient times (since around 1325 BC), they considered that trepidation swung back and forth around 27 degrees.

The significant early exponent of the 'circular 36,000' years method was Ptolemy and, due to the status placed upon Ptolemy by later scholars, the Christian and Muslim astronomers of the Middle Ages accepted the Great Year of 36,000 years rather than trepidation. However some scholars gave credence to both theories based on the addition of another sphere which is represented in the Alfonsine tables produced by the Toledo School of Translators in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Alfonsine tables computed the positions of the sun, moon, and planets relative to the fixed stars. The Italian astronomer Cecco d'Ascoli, professor of astrology at the University of Bologna in the early 14th century, continued to have faith in trepidation but believed it swung 10 degrees in either direction. Copernicus refers to trepidation in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium published in 1543. [36]

Mithraism Edit

Hipparchus' discovery of precession of the equinoxes may have created the Mithraic Mysteries, colloquially also known as Mithraism, a 1st – 4th century neo-Platonic mystery cult of the Roman god Mithras. The near-total lack of written descriptions or scripture necessitates a reconstruction of beliefs and practices from the archaeological evidence, such as that found in Mithraic temples (in modern times called mithraea), which were real or artificial caves representing the cosmos. Until the 1970s most scholars followed Franz Cumont in identifying Mithras as a continuation of the Persian god Mithra. Cumont's continuity hypothesis led him to believe that the astrological component was a late and unimportant accretion.

Cumont's views are no longer followed. Today, the cult and its beliefs are recognized as a synthesis of late-classical Greco-Roman thought, with an astrological component even more astrology-centric than the already Roman beliefs generally were during the early Roman Empire. The details remain debated. [37]

As far as axial precession is concerned, one scholar of Mithraism, David Ulansey, [37] has interpreted Mithras as a personification of the force responsible for precession. He argues that the cult was a religious response to Hipparchus's discovery of precession, which – from the ancient geocentric perspective – amounted to the discovery that the entire cosmos (i.e., the outermost celestial sphere of the fixed stars) was moving in a previously unknown way. Ulansey's analysis is based on the so-called tauroctony: The image of Mithras killing a bull that was placed at the center of every Mithraic temple. In the standard tauroctony, Mithras and the bull are accompanied by a dog, a snake, a raven, a scorpion and two identical young men, with torches.

According to Ulansey, the tauroctony is a schematic star chart. The bull is Taurus, a constellation of the zodiac. In the astrological age that preceded the time of Hipparchus, the vernal equinox had taken place when the Sun was in the constellation of Taurus, and during that previous epoch the constellations of Canis Minor (The Dog), Hydra (The Snake), Corvus (The Raven), and Scorpius (The Scorpion) – that is, the constellations that correspond to the animals depicted in the tauroctony – all lay on the celestial equator (the location of which is shifted by the precession) and thus had privileged positions in the sky during that epoch. Mithras himself represents the constellation Perseus, which is located directly above Taurus the Bull: The same location occupied by Mithras in the tauroctony image. Mithras' killing of the Bull, by this reasoning, represented the power possessed by this new god to shift the entire cosmic structure, turning the cosmic sphere so that the location of the spring equinox left the constellation of Taurus (a transition symbolized by the killing of the Bull), and the Dog, Snake, Raven, and Scorpion likewise lost their privileged positions on the celestial equator. [37]

The iconography also contains two torch-bearing twins (Cautes and Cautopates) framing the bull-slaying image – one holding a torch pointing up and the other a torch pointing down. These torch-bearers are sometimes depicted with one of them (torch up) holding or associated with a Bull and a tree with leaves, and the other (torch down) holding or associated with a Scorpion and a tree with fruit. Ulansey interprets these torch-bearers as representing the spring equinox (torch up, tree with leaves, Bull) and the autumn equinox (torch down, tree with fruit, Scorpion) in Taurus and Scorpius respectively, which is where the equinoxes were located during the preceding "Age of Taurus" symbolized in the tauroctony as a whole.

From this, Ulansey concludes that Mithraic iconography was an "astronomical code" whose secret was the existence of a new cosmic divinity, unknown to those outside the cult, whose fundamental attribute was his ability to shift the structure of the entire cosmos, and thereby to control the astrological forces believed at that time to determine human existence. That gave him the power to grant his devotees success during life and salvation after death (i.e., a safe journey through the planetary spheres and a subsequent immortal existence in the sphere of the stars). [37]

Rate of precession Edit

Though the one degree per hundred years calculated for precession of the equinoxes as defined by Hipparchus and promulgated by Ptolemy was too slow, another rate of precession that was too fast also gained popularity in the 1st millennium AD. By the fourth century AD, Theon of Alexandria [38] assumed a changing rate (trepidation) of one degree per 66 years. The tables of the Shah (Zij-i Shah) [39] originate in the sixth century, but are unfortunately lost, but many later Arabic and Persian astronomers and astrologers refer to them and also use this value.

These later astronomers-astrologers or sources include: Al-Khwarizmi, Zij al Sindhind or "Star Tables Based on the Indian Calculation Method"(c. 800) "Tabulae probatae" or "az-Zig al-mumtan" (c. 830) Al-Battani, Albategnius, al-Zij (c. 880) and al-Sufi, Azophi (c. 965) Al Biruni (973-1048), "al Canon al Masud" or "The Masʿūdic Canon" Arabic fixed star catalogue of 1 October 1112 (ed. Paul Kunitzsch) and "Libros del Saber de Astronomía" by Alfonso X of Castile(1252-1284). [40]

Anno Domini Edit

There exists evidence that the modern calendar developed by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century AD commencing with the birth of Jesus Christ at AD 1 was influenced by precession of the equinoxes and astrological ages. Dionysius' desire to replace Diocletian years (Diocletian persecuted Christians) with a calendar based on the incarnation of Christ was to prevent people from believing the imminent end of the world. At the time it was believed that the Resurrection and end of the world would occur 500 years after the birth of Jesus. The current Anno Mundi calendar theoretically commenced with the creation of the world based on information in the Old Testament. It was believed that based on the Anno Mundi calendar Jesus was born in the year 5500 (or 5500 years after the world was created) with the year 6000 of the Anno Mundi calendar marking the end of the world. [41] [42]

Anno Mundi 6000 (approximately AD 500) was thus equated with the Second Coming of Christ and the end of the world. [43] Since this date had already passed in the time of Dionysius, he therefore searched for a new end of the world at a later date. He was heavily influenced by ancient cosmology, in particular the doctrine of the Great Year that places a strong emphasis on planetary conjunctions. This doctrine says that when all the planets were in conjunction that this cosmic event would mark the end of the world. Dionysius accurately calculated that this conjunction would occur in May AD 2000. Dionysius then applied another astronomical timing mechanism based on precession of the equinoxes. Though incorrect, some oriental astronomers at the time believed that the precessional cycle was 24,000 years which included twelve astrological ages of 2,000 years each. Dionysius believed that if the planetary alignment marked the end of an age (i.e. the Pisces age), then the birth of Jesus Christ marked the beginning of the Age of Pisces 2,000 years earlier. He therefore deducted 2,000 years from the May 2000 conjunction to produce AD 1 [44] for the incarnation of Christ. [45] [46] [47] [48]

Mashallah ibn Athari Edit

The renowned Persian Jewish astronomer and astrologer Masha’Allah (c.740 – 815 CE) employed precession of the equinoxes for calculating the period "Era of the Flood" dated as 3360 BCE or 259 years before the Indian Kali Yuga, believed to have commenced in 3101 BCE. [49]

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola Edit

The 15th century Italian Renaissance philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola published a massive attack on astrological predictions, but he did not object to all of astrology and he commented on the position of the vernal point in his day. Pico was aware of the effects of precession of the equinoxes and knew that the first point of Aries no longer existed in the constellation of Aries. Pico not only knew that the vernal point had shifted back into Pisces, he stated that in his time, the vernal point (zero degrees tropical Aries) was located at 2 degrees (sidereal) Pisces. This suggests that by whatever method of calculation he was employing, Pico expected the vernal point to shift into (sidereal) Aquarius age 144 years later as a one degree shift takes 72 years. [50]

Isaac Newton Edit

Isaac Newton (1642 – 1726/27 ) determined the cause of precession and established the rate of precession at 1 degree per 72 years, very close to the best value measured today, thus demonstrating the magnitude of the error in the earlier value of 1 degree per century. [51]

The Earth, in addition to its diurnal (daily) rotation upon its axis and annual rotation around the Sun, incurs a precessional motion involving a slow periodic shift of the axis itself: approximately one degree every 72 years. This motion, which is caused mostly by the Moon's gravity, gives rise to the precession of the equinoxes in which the Sun's position on the ecliptic at the time of the vernal equinox, measured against the background of fixed stars, gradually changes with time.

In graphical terms, the Earth behaves like a spinning top, and tops tend to wobble as they spin. The spin of the Earth is its daily (diurnal) rotation. The spinning Earth slowly wobbles over a period slightly less than 26,000 years. From our perspective on Earth, the stars are ever so slightly 'moving' from west to east at the rate of one degree approximately every 72 years. One degree is about twice the diameter of the Sun or Moon as viewed from Earth. The easiest way to notice this slow movement of the stars is at any fixed time each year. The most common fixed time is at the vernal equinox around 21 March each year.

In astrology, an astrological age has usually been defined by the constellation or superimposed sidereal zodiac in which the Sun actually appears at the vernal equinox. This is the method that Hipparchus appears to have applied around 127 BC when he calculated precession. Since each sign of the zodiac is composed of 30 degrees, each astrological age might be thought to last about 72 (years) × 30 (degrees) = about 2160 years.

This means the Sun crosses the equator at the vernal equinox moving backwards against the fixed stars from one year to the next at the rate of one degree in seventy-two years, one constellation (on average) in about 2160 years, and the whole twelve signs in about 25,920 years, sometimes called a Platonic Year. However the length of the ages are decreasing with time as the rate of precession is increasing. Therefore, no two ages are of equal length.

First point of Aries alignment - the fiducial point Edit

Approximately every 26,000 years the zodiacal constellations, the associated sidereal zodiac, and the tropical zodiac used by western astrologers basically align. Technically this is when the tropical and sidereal "first point in Aries" (Aries 0°) coincided. This alignment is often called the fiducial point and, if the fiducial point could be found, fairly exact timeframes of all the astrological ages could be accurately determined if the method used to determine the astrological ages is based on the equal-sized 30 degrees per age and do not correspond to the exact constellation configuration in the sky.

However this fiducial point is difficult to determine because while there is no ambiguity about the tropical zodiac used by western astrologers, the same cannot be said of the sidereal zodiac used by Vedic astrologers. Vedic astrologers do not have unanimity on the exact location in space of their sidereal zodiac. This is because the sidereal zodiac is superimposed upon the irregular zodiacal constellation, and there are no unambiguous boundaries of the zodiacal constellations.

Modern day astronomers have defined boundaries, but this is a recent development by astronomers who are divorced from astrology, and cannot be assumed to be correct from the astrological perspective. While most astronomers and some astrologers agree that the fiducial point occurred in or around the 3rd to 5th centuries AD, there is no consensus on any exact date or tight timeframe within these three centuries. A number of dates are proposed by various astronomers and even wider timeframes by astrologers. (For an alternative approach to calibrating precession, see Alternative approach to calibrating precession in New, alternative, and fringe theories section below).

As an example of a mystic contemporary approach to precession, in Max Heindel's astrology writings, [52] it is described, that last time the starting-point of the sidereal zodiac agreed with the tropical zodiac occurred in AD 498. A year after these points were in exact agreement, the Sun crossed the equator about fifty seconds of space into the constellation Pisces. The year following it was one minute and forty seconds into Pisces, and so it has been creeping backwards ever since, until at the present time the Sun crosses the equator in about nine degrees in the constellation Pisces. Based on this approach, it will thus be about 600 years before it actually crosses the celestial equator in the constellation Aquarius. However this is only one of many approaches and so this must remain speculation at this point of time.

Blog » The Astronomical Constellational Zodiac Scale

Feel free to use it for your musical compositions or quote from it for own work, but please, do place a reference to this article when you do (see licence at the bottom of this page).

The Zodiac represents the constellations that the Sun passes through in its apparent path across Earth’s sky. Because the Sun (and the planets) are all on about the same plane in the Solar System, they pass through the same constellations. While traditionally the zodiac is considered to have 12 constellations, technically the Sun passes through 13 at present time.

The reason that there are now 13 constellations the Sun passes through according to various sources is that the axis of the Earth has changed over the millennia. What is important to understand, is that the The zodiac is a belt of space which extends either side of the ecliptic. All the observable planetary activity in our solar system takes place within this narrow celestial belt. Due to a “wobble” of the Earth (one full turn with the “Great Year“) Ophiuchus isn’t always in between Earth and the Sun. As a result of this “wobble” the direction of north has changed with respect to the sky. Vega was the North Star (Pole Star) several thousand years ago, and will become it again in about 13,000 years, according to NASA. Today, the North Star is Polaris.

IMPORTANT: The tropical and sidereal zodiac (and the division of the ecliptic into a number of “signs” named after constellations) is based on the path of the Sun when it’s in between Earth and the Zodiac Constellations, as well as in the case of Tropical Astrology the 4 seasons on Earth (with the Equinoxes and the line of the Solstices forming a cross) while the sidereal system defines the signs based on the fixed stars. The 12 signs used in tropical and sidereal astrology are the so called “Sun signs”, Ophiuchus (the 13th) is not.

The Astrological or Tropical (aligns with the equinoxes and the solstices) / Sidereal (alignes with the constellations) Zodiac divides the year into 12 Equal periods (this correlates with the 12-Tone Equal Temperament).

The Astronomical or Constellational Zodiac depicts the number of days of the Earth’s orbit when the Sun is between Earth and any one of the zodiacal constellations. The Astronomical Zodiac counts 13 constellations, the 13th is named “Ophiuchus“

Since each constellation is of different size, and because the ecliptic (the sun’s path) passes through larger or smaller portions of each constellation and the speed of the Earth around the Sun varies along its orbit, the Sun is between the Earth and each zodiacal constellation for varying periods.

Varying (unequal) periods = unequal sectors = unequal interval size!

Another example of the difference between the mapping of the Tropical Zodiac and the actual time that the Sun travels through the Constellations can be seen on the image on the right I found on the internet.

The red dashed line shows the path of the Sun (the Ecliptic) crossing the Constellations.

NOTE: In the image on the right the Sun moves from right to left! The “time-line” in this image starts at the Spring Equinox with Aries (Astrology) and Pisces (Astronomically) and ends after the Winter with Pisces (Astrology) and Aquarius (Astronomy).


For the length of the days per sign I have used calculations made by Juan Anthony Revilla with data from an article by Pierre Bacchus in “L’Astronomie” June 1979, pp.297-99.

The exact number of days per Zodiac sign could differ a bit (that depends on the source used and the “type” of year you use for your calculations). A 24-hour difference will effect the exact outcome, but I estimate those differences to be up to approx. 1 day per sign. The frequencies thus mentioned in this article are therefor an approximation of the tone frequencies and might differ up to 1Hz.

To calculate tone-span in cents per Zodiac signs, you have to divide 1200 cents (the distance between a Tonic and the Octave) by the number of days per year and multiply that with the number of days as was calculated. Now, I could use the round number of 365 days for it, but I have decided to use the Anomalistic Year for my calculations.

The Anomalistic year is the time taken for the Earth to complete one revolution with respect to its Apsides. The orbit of the Earth is elliptical the extreme points, called apsides, are the Perihelion, where the Earth is closest to the Sun (January 3 in 2011), and the Aphelion, where the Earth is farthest from the Sun (July 4 in 2011). The Anomalistic year is usually defined as the time between Perihelion passages. Its average duration is 365.259636 days (365 d 6 h 13 min 52.6 s) at the epoch J2011.0).

1200 (cents) : 365.259636 (days of the Anomalistic year) = 3.285334271 cents per day (24 hours).

You could also use the Sidereal or Tropical years. In comparison:

  • 1200 (cents) : 365.25636 (days of the Sidereal year) = 3.285363737 cents per day (24 hours).
  • 1200 (cents) : 365.24219 (days of the Tropical year) = 3.285491197 cents per day (24 hours).

This is how the division of the circles look like with 13 & 12 signs::

Because we use a 12-tone scale in Western music, the 13th sign (Ophiuchus) and Scorpio (who in the Astronomical Zodiac only has span of 7 days) will be “merged“.

The interval created by just Scorpio alone would be too small (approximately 23 cents) to be of use anyway, while combined with Ophiuchus we end up with a interval of approximately 82 cents, in between a “Hard Semitone” and a “Septimal chromatic semitone“.

I have chosen to start with C4=256Hz (the “Scientific Pitch“) for this temperament, but you are naturally free to use another pitch for C4 to start with. When you add the results from the tables above (combined with the Circle Of Fifth based Tone Zodiac”) to the chromatic scale, we get the following result:

Sign Constellation Tone Cents To Next Tone Frequency (Hz)
AriesC 256 256
& Scorpio & Ophiuchus C ♯ /D ♭ 268.6825093184329 269
GeminiD 281.6457007820792 282
CapricornD♯/E♭ 297.69285251441477 298
LeoE 313.60514470726037 314
PiscesF 336.44808806172546 336
LibraF♯/G♭ 361.2701348994703 361
TaurusG 377.45919239188333 377
SagittariusG♯/A♭ 405.92268794831494 406
CancerA 431.7869586242998 432
AquariusA♯/B♭ 449.30761351210754 449
VirgoB 470.29775997051314 470

TONE C D♭ D E♭ E F F♯/G♭ G A♭ A B♭ B C
HZ 256 269 282 298 314 336 361 377 406 432 449 470 512

IMPORTANT NOTE: Now, it seems fair to warn those who have no “experience” with micro-tonal music that the temperament created with this concept might sound “strange” to your ears!

This temperament might not work well in all tonalities or for music with complex harmonic structures. The implementation of this temperament works best for Ambient music and for music with “meditative” purposes.

In case you are fairly new to musical tuning systems and temperaments, perhaps you should read this short explanation first.


Image used for the article banner and Soundcloud player by:


Those of you who are interested in 432-Tuning might have already noticed that we find A4 rounded-up at 432Hz (431.7869586242998Hz). Just to place this number in perspective:

24 hours = 3.285334271 cents, 1 hour = 0,136888928 cents, one minute = 0,002281482 cents. 432Hz – 431.7869586242998Hz = 0,213041376 cents.

This means we speak about a difference of:

1 hour and 33,3 minutes (0.02%) between 431.786… and 432Hz.

A4=432Hz and C4=256Hz are though the only two tone-frequencies that the Astronomical Zodiac Scale has in common with the standard 432-Tuning (Pythagorean Temperament). With [email protected] there are two other tones that are not too far off F♯/G♭ (363.3Hz) and G♯/A♭ (407.7Hz).

In other words, this is a unique temperament, an other “cosmic connection” to 432Hz then what you have seen and heard so far.

This is an original concept by Roel Hollander and falls under the following license:

Your "zodiac sign" is so important, but it's just one of the signs that make up YOU! The Sun is just one part of your Astrology -- every key planet in our solar system has an impact on you, and is associated with a specific zodiac sign. So while you have one sign of the zodiac representing the Sun's location at your birth, you have another sign that represents your emotions (the location of the Moon at your birth), your love life (the location of Venus), and more!

So why is your Sun sign the most important of all? It represents who you are at your core: how you act, how you express yourself, who you are to yourself. It is "you" in your most basic sense, exhibiting your soul's current nature on its path through many lifetimes. So while you may feel one way at work, a different way at home, and an even different way in your relationships, your Sun sign's traits run through all of it.

All the people born under one Sun sign should NOT feel the same -- each of them has an entire Astrology birth chart impacting them that is different from all the others. Nonetheless, people born under one Sun sign can often find great camaraderie with others of the same sign, because their true nature is similar at its very core.

What is the exact time of sun stay in each zodiac every year on sidereal year duration? - Astronomy

Is Manual Machining Faster than CNC for Simple Parts?

Is Manual Machining Faster than CNC for Simple Parts?

Antikythera Mechanism / Orrery Plans

I’ve always had a great interest in Astronomy, and I read with great interest recent articles about the Antikythera Mechanism, which was apparently an ancient orrery or simulator of motions of the heavenly bodies. The machine, which was constructed circa 80 BC, could represent the motions of most heavenly bodies known in its time using a clockwork consisting of 37 gears.

/>Differential Gear Mechanism Was Way Ahead of Its Time.

The front dial would show the progression of the Sun and Moon through the Zodiac according to the ancient Egyptian calendar. The lower back dial gives the Metonic cycle, the Synodic cycle, and the Lunar
year of 12 Synodic months. Later researchers determined that the device could show the motion of the visible planets through the Zodiac, as well as predict Solar and Lunar eclipses using the Saros scale. It also displayed
the Calippic scale.


Front and Back of a Reconstructed Model of the Antykthera Mechanism

This Model May Be Closer. Note the Spiral Tracks on the Back Dials

The Sun and Moon Dials Tracking Against the Zodiac…

My Own Astronomical Clock Design: Bobtikythera

After reading some about the Antikythera Mechanism, I was inspired and got interested in designing an astronomical clock of
my own. I don’t know if I will ever finish the design, let alone build it, but it is an interesting and challenging exercise. I’m learning a lot about clockwork, as well as refreshing some old memories about astronomy and learning for the first time more about how the Ancients dealt with heavenly bodies. Fascinating stuff!

Let’s consider the ratios needed to produce the outputs. We will assume the input crank is 1 Egyptian calendar day each revolution:

A Geartrain Schematic:

Here is a schematic that I use to represent the inter-relationship between the various gears or wheels in the Mechanism I’m designing. I think it simplifies the understanding of how it would work:


Gear Mechanism Schematic…

Each of the light blue circles represents a major gear and dial in the system. In other words, it is both a gear that others may engage as well as an output of some kind. For example, the Synodic Cycle is a dial showing the lunar phases as well as an important gear that is driven through a 29.5:1 ratio from the input shaft and goes on to drive7 subsequent major gear/dials and 4 auxilliary reduction gears.

The dark blue circles represent what I’m calling auxilliary reduction gears. In my more detailed design, I estimated
the diameter of each gear in the system given a 20 tooth per inch gear pitch. Based on that estimate, I added auxilliary gearing to keep the largest gears from exceeding much more than 8″ in diameter. The largest gear/dial is that governing the motion of Mars through the Zodiac at 8.4″. The smallest gear/dials (doesn’t count the aux reduction gears) have 10 teeth each and correspond to the Input in days and the Tropical Year.

Geartrain Details:

To work out the details of the geartrain, I designed an Excel spreadsheet that tracked the following for each gear/dial:

– Input Source: What gear/dial or sub-gear on the same hub drives this gear/dial?

– Ratio: What is the ultimate reduction ratio we want to achieve from the input?

– Auxilliary Gear Ratio: The reduction ratio of any auxilliary gear that may be present. This ratio was hand tuned to keep gear diameters to 8″ or so and also to minimize the potential errors if the ratios dictated something other than an integer number of teeth.

– Teeth: The number of teeth around the circumference of the gear to achieve the desired ratio from the input.

– Circumference: Given the number of teeth divided by 20 teeth per inch pitch, what would be the circumference of this gear?

– Diameter: Circumference/Pi gives diameter of the gear.

– Tooth Error: For gears that did not have an exact number of teeth due to the ratios (e.g. Mercury gear had 439.71 teeth), what would be the positioning error in inches? Simply divide the portion of the fractional number of teeth closest to the next integer number by 20 teeth per inch to arrive a the maximum error in the dial. Most dials wound up with less than 0.001″ error, except for Mercury, which had right at 0.001″. Given backlash and the likely precision with which the mechanism can be made, I judge that 0.001″ or less error will be inconsequential to the accuracy of the mechanism.

– Purpose: What is the dial used for or what does it represent?

– Calibration: How will the dial be calibrated? For example, the Metonic Cycle dial will be graduated into 19 divisions, each representing a normal year.

Here are the details I came up with:

Rhino Geartrain Layout

Next, I tried laying out some of the gears using Rhino 3D, just to get an idea of how things might fit together. This was my
first attempt at a layout for the gears needed to drive the inner planets. It’s everything in the gear schematic above that’s tied directly to the input wheel except for the synodic wheel.


A first attempt at gear layout in Rhino. The exact center is the Input Gear, and the various other gear trains are color coded. I’m thinking I’ll want something a little more compact!

I also sketched out an orrery hub mechanism in Rhino to see how that might work:

Orrery front view. That’s Earth in the center, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. That is the order the Ptolemaic universe worked in…


A closer perspective view of the Orrery mechanism…

This orrery piece presents some real design issues. The drawing shows the heavenly bodies in the Ptolemaic perspective, with Earth at the center and all the other bodies revolving around it. As you recall, refuting this view is one of the things that put Gallileo (and others) in hot water with the Church.

The Ptolemaic perspective is more in keeping with the feel I’d like to have for the clock, which is a lot more astrological
and Ancient-looking than a more modern orrery. Frankly, I’d like to do both at some point and have them sit next to one another. The problem is that the planets display retrograde motion. In other words, at certain times of the year, their apparent motion against the stars reverses for a time and the planet “backs up”. This happens as planets lap each other around the sun. In the Ancient view, this was accounted for by having the planets travel in little sub-circles called “epicycles” as they made their circuit around the big circle. You can imagine that this would make for complex motion to simulate with clockwork!

The easier way out is to have the orrery display the modern view, with Sun at center and planets circling around
it. To determine where a planet appears in the Zodiac would require sighting along the line from the Earth to the planet and extending that line into the zodiac. Not quite so elegant, although physically more realistic and also easier to construct a clockwork for.


A rendering of the baseplate for the orrery…


Astronomical Theory Notes

Ancient Astronomical Cycles:

A little extra explanation of some of these cycle sand why they are important.

– Metonic Cycle: Every 19.0 tropical years ( or 235 synodic months) from the precise date of full/new Moon, another full/new Moon occurs at approximately the same degree of the ecliptic and about the same date. the ancient Greeks called 19 the golden number as the same lunar phase repeates on the same date every 19.0 years.

– Ancient Egyptian Calendar: Also called a “wandering calendar” because it consists of 365 days and ignores leap years,
hence it shifts one day in every four years. The Egyptian calendar day starts at sunrise and noon is defined as 6 diurnal hours later. Sunset occurs 12 diurnal hours after sunrise and midnight is 6 nocturnal hours later. The length of the hours depends on the observer’s latitude as well as the season. Ptolemy adopted hours of equal length, known s equinoctial hours, and shift the epoch from sunrise to mean local noon (6 hours) at the meridian of Alexandria. Sunrise, measured in these hours, will on
average occur 6 hours earlier and sunset 6 equal hours later (on average), but the exact value depends on the season.

– Zig Zag Functions: A unique technique developed by the Seleucian Babylonians to deal with the irregular motions of planets through the Zodiac.

Other Cycles:

Cycles not tracked by the original Antikythera Mechanism, but that would be interesting and straightforward to recreate.

– Sunspot Cycle: The sun goes through an 11 year cycle of sunspot minima to maxima. The last high was in 2001, so the next one will be 2012. It would not be hard to add a dial tracking the cycle, although the ancients had no idea there
was such a cycle. Gallileo discovered sunspots, but it wasn’t until 1843 that an amateur astronomer named Heinrich Schwabe discovered the 11 year cycle.

– Birthdays, Anniversaries, and Important Dates: A single revolution of the Calippic Cycle, the longest duration cycle tracked by
this device, corresponds to 76 years. Given a “starting date” of 1900, each revolution of the Calippic cycle will take us from 1900 to 1976 (the United States Bicentennial) to 2052 to 2128. So 4 revolutions is enough to record anyone living’s birthdate and then some. Wouldn’t it be interesting to turn the crank and see the configuration of the stars on the day you were born and every birthday thereafter?

Antikythera Links

The Antikythera Computing Device: Excellent data on internal functioning, especially the differential gear system.

The Wheels of Greek Astronomers: Excellent description of the Antikythera Mechanism.

What is the exact time of sun stay in each zodiac every year on sidereal year duration? - Astronomy


Have you always felt enchanted by the night sky?

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Many of the great astrologers of our time don't know this astronomical side to our craft because astrology and astronomy have in a sense, long been divorced.

But when we “re-nature” our craft by remembering how to see the sky in the chart and the chart in the sky, we will remember the roots of the rules and the proofs of the astrological equations we use, resulting in an embodied practice of astrology.



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Chapter 1 – The Circle of Spirit – What in the Heavens is the Zodiac? (2 hours, 23 minutes)

After covering which parts of an astrology chart are astronomical and which are not, we'll journey out to space to embrace the ecliptic, the plane of the Earth-Sun relationship. You'll learn how the constellations of the zodiac are defined and Gemini will reveal many tricks that will help you learn how to see them in the sky. You'll discover why constellations are different than Signs and will be introduced to the three popular Zodiac cosmologies of our time: Constellational, Sidereal, and Tropical.

A. The Three Parts of the Philosophy – Spirit, Soul, and Matter – 14:51

B. A Map of the Soul and a Map of the Sky- the Astronomical Parts of your Astrology Chart – 24:28

C. One Ring to Rule them All – The Ecliptic Plane and the Constellations of the Zodiac – 21:53

D. Getting Centered – Heliocentric vs. Geocentric Cosmologies and why both are Necessary to Sacred Astronomy – 28:11

E. Connecting the Dots – Learning to see the Zodiac Constellations in the Sky – 24:58

F. Stars and Stripes – Essential Differences between Constellations and Signs – 12:55

G. The Three Zodiacs: Constellational, Sidereal, and Tropical – 15:14

Chapter 2 – The Cross of Matter – the Astrological Angles, Quadrants, and Houses (3 hours, 35 minutes)

In this module, we will put our feet on the ground and engage the energies of the cardinal directions to understand the heavenly motion that is often least understood by astrologers even though it is certainly the easiest one to witness in our sky. The mysteries of the angles, quadrants, and heavenly houses you will learn to embody and integrate through the transmissions of these lessons will upgrade your astrology instantaneously.

A. The Primary Motion – Earth's daily rotation, the World Tree, and the Circle of Matter – 12:53

B. The Wheel in the Sky – the Celestial Poles and Equator, the Lataltitude principle, and the Northern versus Southern Hemisphere Experiences of the Heavens – 45:34

C. Rise, Reach, Rest, Root – The Astrological Angles and Quadrants – 30:53

D. Hidden Things – Why the 12th is First, but also Last for this “Sunwise” Motion – 21:44

E. I'll Follow The Sun – The Heavenly Houses as Described by the Sun's Daily Dance – 33:30

F. Aligning with the Directions – How to Build a Medicine Wheel or Simple Sundial and how to Work with it by Night and by Day – 18:18

G. Seeing the MidHeaven – a Powerful Practice for beginning to see the Chart in the Sky – 16:48

Chapter 3 – The Signs of Time – The Very Real Astronomy of the Tropical Zodiac (3 hours, 28 minutes)

Now that we understand the motions of the year and the day, we'll find the design of the Tropical Zodiac is simply and elegantly based on the way they interface. The glyphs we use to represent the Signs will be your guides as you learn why the Tropical Zodiac is so much more than a seasonal device. Let us take back the very real astronomy of the Tropical Zodiac!

A. Time & Place – The Whole and the Particular – 21:15

B. The Solar Serpent, Declination, Right Ascension, and Northern vs. Southern Signs – 29:46

C. The Gemini and Cancer Glyphs – Altitude, Azimuth, and Antiscia – 42:15

D. The Virgo and Libra Glyphs – The Directional Zodiac – 27:35

E. The Sagittarius and Capricorn Glyphs – The Tilt and the Tropics – 21:46

F. The Pisces and Aries Glyphs – the Ram-Horn Rise of the Eastern sky and why it Challenges the Accepted History of the Zodiac's Origins – 10:30

G. The Sun on the Year Cross – Passover, EASTer (Eostre), the Global Ascendant, and the Turning of the Ages – 54:20

Chapter 4 – The Crescent of Soul – The Astronomy of the Astrological Aspects as Reflected by the Phases of the Moon (3 hours, 52 minutes)

In these lessons, you will learn to see how the teachings of Modules one, two, and three are clearly reflected in the mirror of the Moon as she waxes and wanes and travels through the constellations and Signs by month and the houses by day. The Moon's ever-changing smile will teach you to see opening and closing phases as well as applying and separating aspects in the sky. You'll also meet Black Moon Lilith and the Lunar Nodes who will teach you about the types and timings of Eclipses.

A. Reception and Reflection – The Celestial Midwife – 26:45

B. The Light That Ebbs and Flows – The Moonthly Dance of Spirit & Soul – 44:05

C. How High The Moon, but also How Low – So Many Sky Games To Play As Moon Waxes & Wanes – 47:14

D. Near & Far – Perigee, Apogee, and Lunar Speed – 18:28

E. Enter the Dragon – Introduction to the Sacred Astronomy of Lunar Nodes & Eclipses – 27:55

G. The Way of 19 Rays – Synchronizing The Rhythms of Silver & Gold – 28:57

Chapter 5 – Celestial Choreography – Synodic Cycles of the Stars and Planets including Retrograde Periods (5 hours, 25 minutes)

In this module, you'll see how almost everything you've learned about the cycles of the Moon applies to Planet and Star cycles too. You’ll further your understanding of how every Planet is absolutely unique, but you’ll also see why and how they are grouped into teams. Regardless of whether they travel on the inner or outer tracks, you’ll learn why Earth and Sun set the pace of the race and determine whether the celestial chariots travel direct or retrograde.

A. Relationship to Relationship – Taking a Look Through The Other's Eyes and Solving The Thirteen Sign Crime – 36:35

B. Good Grammar – Applying vs. Separating Aspects, Opening vs. Closing Phases, and Why We Speak The Name Of The Faster Moving Planet First – 47:52

C. Star Cycles – Keeping The Year With The Heliacal Settings & Risings of the Fixed Stars – 34:47

D. Planetary Phases – Morning Star, Evening Star, or Under The Beams – 19:42

E. Planetary Crews – Inner or Outer Terrestrial, Giant, or Dwarf? Planetary Composition, Distance, Periodicity, Eccentricity, Obliquity, and Much more – 31:14

F. The Great Chariot Race – The Synodic Cycles of The Exerior Planets – 47:10

G. Interior Decorators – The Synodic Cycles of Mercury & Venus – 30:15

Chapter 6 – The Teachings of the Temple – The Sky in the Chart and the Chart in the Sky (5 hours, 5 minutes)

The transmissions of module six will help you solidify and integrate the astronomical amount of embodied astrology you've learned in only five weeks time. You'll be able to clearly see your progress reflected in the chart and in the sky and, most importantly, you'll truly understand how the two are one and the same though playing these simple, but profoundly powerful sacred astronomy games. Gemini will show you how to find and align with your guiding lights.

A. The Ascendant as the Rudder (OIAX) – Learn to find your Shamanic Direction – 36:10

B. The Leaning Meridian – Why Chart Quadrants are almost always unequal and an introduction to Porphyry Houses – 27:56

C. The Bending of the Ecliptic – the Nonagesimal and Equal and Whole Sign Houses – 21:54

D. Straight and Crooked Signs – Signs of Long and Short Ascension – 34:36

E. Peeking Through the Veil – How to find the Ascendant through the Trees – 30:08

F. Diana Midwifes Apollo's Birth on Earth – Looking into Moon's Mirror to see through the Sun's Beams – 50:48

G. Your Guiding Stars – Your Parans and Projections and How to Connect with their Directions – 42:01

68 responses to &ldquo How long does the Earth take to go around the Sun and what causes the seasons? &rdquo

What I find most fascinating is that the tilt of the earth’s axis, as it changes thus causing our 4 distinct seasons, happens to exactly correspond to our journey around the sun. Think about that
It takes roughly 365.25 days to go around the sun from point A to point A, and the earth’s tilt will be in the exact same spot as it was when it crossed point A one year earlier. That is most amazing to me.

but.. it’s because the tilt doesn’t change. only the position of the earth does.

Have anyone ever considered that the Earth may be stationary and immoveable? (Yes as stated in the Bible) and if you search online there are sites that have done all the work for you and show the chapters that state this) According to NASA we spin at approx. 1038 mph at the equator all the time travelling through space at 67000 mph. The clouds and stars are stationary. I have never felt any movement. Water will always remain level. “Research Flat Earth”. We have been sold a lie.

B Hunt, Ha! And I worry that you have been sold a joke. The Earth is a sphere, it rotates and it revolves around the Sun. All the clouds and stars I see move. When I sit in a car or bus, I feel the bumps and the changes in direction but I cant feel the forward speed. Can you? Likewise, with no bumps or direction changes, I cant feel the movement of the Earth. But in 1727 James Bradley proved the Earth moves when he explained the aberration of starlight. Many millenia ago some thought the Earth to be stationary but now we have grown up, done the research and we know better.

What is the exact time of sun stay in each zodiac every year on sidereal year duration? - Astronomy

Star Map of the 13th Sign

Can you find Ophiuchus center stage, vaulting over the ecliptic?

You can't miss her tail on the Zodiacal plane, like a snake sunning itself on the road. She's on her way to meet Hercules, her male equivalent. Ophiuchus is the female power that was suppressed by astrologers in 100 ACE and she and her coven have been the subject of the largest and longest genocide in history. The war on strong women has never let up. Read on to see how this heroic and erotic female has been supplanted with a patriarchy in astrology since the Roman Empire.

Don't be surprised that your birthday no longer falls in the sign you've grown up with. Astrologers gave you the wrong sign, at least the wrong degree. 80 percent of people think they're the wrong sign. Look at the skies yourself, and you'll see the problem. The Sun, Moon and the planets are not where astrologers say, not even close! Mainstream "tropical" astrology is wildly inaccurate and the laughing stock of science and astronomy.

[Click to download the free planetarium app Stellarium and see for yourself]


Most Western astrologers use an obsolete, 1800-year-old system that ignores the Earth's precession of the equinoxes and is off by almost 30 degrees. This is the fatal blow to tropical astrology. Science and the rest of the world abandoned the tropical view of the universe 600 years ago . Tropical astrology gets the signs wrong. They are a sign ahead of what is true. If you'd like to see what the sky really looks like on any given day, download the (free) planetarium apps, Stellarium, or Telescope, or just go out and check the night sky for yourself!

Astrology is Time Sensitive

Astrology has been crippled with Ptolemy's futile attempt to stop time in its tracks around 100 AD. He tied astrology to the wrong time, as soon as he introduced it. His calculations would gain an error of a degree every 75 years. Today, Tropical astrologers are typically off by a full sign, like a broken clock, which reveals only its own error. Tropical astrology can't find your place in the cosmos, it can't be used to calculate the true positions of the planets and constellations. It will never get the numbers right. It utterly fails to deliver on its basic promise--to tell you your natal sign. And it doesn't even end there.

Ophiuchus is part of the Zodiac

For real time streaming, go to: Nine Planets

The Zodiac has 13, not 12, signs! The constellation of the goddess Ophiuchus, the snake handler, can clearly be seen next to Scorpio and leaping up to meet Hercules. Only her tail remains in the ecliptic.

Ophiuchus deserves to be reinstated into the Zodiac. She is the birth of the new the power of the zenith the culmination of Scorpio's lonely vigil. Astronomers recognize her as one of the eponymous (original) signs on the Zodiac. Yet, she's a non-entity in tropical astrology, and was changed into a man by the Greeks.

Ptolemy eliminated Ophiuchus, as well as masking the gender of other female gods, and superimposing a static, Solar 12-sign Zodiac with equal thirty-degree houses. The Romans went so far as to gouge Libra out of Scorpio to honor the bloody reign of their syphilitic Emperor, Augustus. The arrogant Romans cut and sliced up the Cosmic pie to reflect their own wretched slave-based and hypocritical society!

Astrology is actually based on the 28 day, 13-month lunar calendar. Each of 13 signs hold a different share of the 360 degrees of the Sun's yearly travel, but the portions aren't all identical, they vary. The Sun is in Virgo for the most days of the year, 46, and Scorpio has the least, with six. Ptolemy's oversimplification of astrology may have been convenient before computers, when star gazing was an arcane pursuit but today, drawing up the correct chart is easy with the right software.

Now, anybody can see the fatal flaws in astrology. Why astrologers still use Ptolemy's ridiculous Ephemeris (compiled by the man who insisted the Sun revolved around the Earth) is an irony of history. Tropical astrology is deservedly found only on the comics page in newspapers and is milked like a cash cow by glib charlatans.

How important is accuracy? Astrology, like astronomy, is based on math, and only works if the math works. Astrologers must have an astronomically accurate map to interpret a horoscope correctly. How can tropical astrologers use bogus numbers in their horoscopes? The results are going to be a crock.

Only the correct chart, showing the true signs of the planets and luminaries, can help us interpret them in any meaningful way. The system you use to apply the ancient traditional symbols must correlate to the real sky, or what's the point? The astronomy must be on point for the astrology to make sense. Remember, astrology was designed thousands of years ago as the greatest sociological study ever attempted! Why are we adding bad data to the pool?

Ready to meet the real you? Find out what a real astrology can do! The real horoscope is the map of the skies at the moment of your birth and your location. Only an astronomically accurate chart shows the correct degrees and signs of the Moon, Sun, and all your planets and asteroids.

Your horoscope chart is based on dates and numbers, if they are not right, how can you get a reading from them? The numbers have to be right . 13 sign astrology's numbers are exactly right, it strikes the mark every time . With 13 sign astrology, the ancient myths are rooted in modern facts.

Each chart is like your biography, except it holds the seeds of future development as well. You can read a lot from the exact numbers, not just your correct Sun sign and the signs of the planets. You can also discover your lunar message of fulfillment in the Moon's Nodes, find your Rising Sign according to your time zone, and get an accurate transit report. Transits are in constant predictable cycles with inescapable influences for you personally and you can see them coming with an accurate astrological forecast. Your natal horoscope and the degrees of the transiting planets have to be exact to be able to make predictions.

Astrology should be so much more than a cliche, and not so convoluted that it's irrelevant to our lives. Astrology is a workable tool to gain enlightenment and help us in our lives, as we pass through our transiting cycles. Accurate astrology is necessary for synastry relationship charts, progressions, returns and astro-cartography.

The point of equinox changes at about 50.29 arc seconds annually -- rotating backwards one degree every 75 years.

The 2 Theories About Precession

Our orientation to the larger universe is constantly shifting. There is something that causes the vernal equinox (the meeting place of the celestial and ecliptic plane) to go in a backwards cycle around the ecliptic, returning to its starting place over an estimated period of 26,000 years. This is called the precession of the equinoxes and it is why our first day of spring is always changing, moving backwards along the calendar days.

The reasons for the precession are unknown, but there are two main theories:

The Gravitational Theory
The precession is caused by the combined gravitational effects of the sun, moon, and the planetary components which act on the Earth&rsquos equatorial bulge, like the motion of a spinning top. This torque causes a slight distortion in the shape of the Earth which slows it down.

The Binary System (Polarity Theory)
Every object in the Universe has its companion in space, even billions of light years away, yet they are connected by an invisible electric plasma (dark matter?) Our Sun with its solar system rotates in a binary orbit with a companion star, maybe an invisible brown dwarf. The whole solar system&rsquos orientation to the fixed stars slows down, resonating and mirroring the invisible twin's movement.

The Binary theory has made a big comeback recently because of the the flaws in gravitational theory. MORE

8. Next to the transits there are a variable number of yellow or red stars. What is the significance of those?

The yellow colour indicates a soothing and conciliating aspect, and the red colour, a dynamic and tense aspect. The red aspects enable you to evolve, to take action, and to learn to turn your "weaknesses" into assets through your life experiences. The yellow aspects are innate strengths on which you rely in order to grow better with the former. And stars indicate the strength of the aspects.

Watch the video: Tell the time by the sun, Survival Skills (May 2022).