# Can gravity be amplified by other celestial bodies in its vicinity?

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I'm wondering if the gravitational pull from earth that should be constant around the planet, will get amplified by a celestial body like the moon orbiting the earth?

Gravity itself cannot be amplified but the forces are additive. The earth is held in orbit by the Sun's gravity but earth is also affected by the moon's gravity. Depending on their position the moon's gravity could be aligned with Sun's gravity, increasing the gravitational pull. Or the moon could reduce the effect of suns gravity if on opposite side of the earth relative to the sun.

## Tidal force

The tidal force is a gravitational effect that stretches a body along the line towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body it is responsible for diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within the Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects. It arises because the gravitational field exerted on one body by another is not constant across its parts: the nearest side is attracted more strongly than the farthest side. It is this difference that causes a body to get stretched. Thus, the tidal force is also known as the differential force, as well as a secondary effect of the gravitational field.

In celestial mechanics, the expression tidal force can refer to a situation in which a body or material (for example, tidal water) is mainly under the gravitational influence of a second body (for example, the Earth), but is also perturbed by the gravitational effects of a third body (for example, the Moon). The perturbing force is sometimes in such cases called a tidal force [1] (for example, the perturbing force on the Moon): it is the difference between the force exerted by the third body on the second and the force exerted by the third body on the first. [2]

## 1. Overview of the Scholium

Today, Newton is best known as a physicist whose greatest single contribution was the formulation of classical mechanics and gravitational theory as set out in his Philosophae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), first published in 1687, and now usually referred to simply as &ldquoNewton's Principia&rdquo. Newton's views on space, time, and motion not only provided the kinematical basis for this monumental work and thus for the whole of classical physics up until the early twentieth century, but also played an integral role in Newton's general system of philosophy and theology (largely developed prior to the Principia). Because Newton never drafted a treatise on, or even a digest of, this general system, his stature as one of the great philosophers of the seventeenth century, indeed, of all time, is no longer widely appreciated.

A &ldquoScholium&rdquo at the beginning of the Principia, inserted between the &ldquoDefinitions&rdquo and the &ldquoLaws of Motion&rdquo, lays out Newton's views on time, space, place, and motion. He begins by saying that, since in common life these quantities are conceived of in terms of their relations to sensible bodies, it is incumbent to distinguish between, on the one hand, the relative, apparent, common conception of them, and, on the other, the absolute, true, mathematical quantities themselves. To paraphrase:

• Absolute, true, and mathematical time, from its own nature, passes equably without relation to anything external, and thus without reference to any change or way of measuring of time (e.g., the hour, day, month, or year).
• Absolute, true, and mathematical space remains similar and immovable without relation to anything external. (The specific meaning of this will become clearer below from the way it contrasts with Descartes' concept of space.) Relative spaces are measures of absolute space defined with reference to some system of bodies or another, and thus a relative space may, and likely will, be in motion.
• The place of a body is the space which it occupies, and may be absolute or relative according to whether the space is absolute or relative.
• Absolute motion is the translation of a body from one absolute place to another relative motion the translation from one relative place to another.

Newton devotes the bulk of the Scholium to arguing that the distinction between the true quantities and their relative measures is necessary and justified.

It is evident from these characterizations that, according to Newton:

1. space is something distinct from body and exists independently of the existence of bodies,
2. there is a fact of the matter whether a given body moves and what its true quantity of motion is, and
3. the true motion of a body does not consist of, or cannot be defined in terms of, its motion relative to other bodies.

The first of these theses was a point of major contention in 17th-century natural philosophy and one assailed by Newton's critics such as Leibniz, Huygens, and Berkeley. The second was not in general dispute. Descartes, Leibniz, and Berkeley all believed that, to put it in somewhat scholastic terms, the predicate &lsquox is in true motion&rsquo is a complete predicate in the sense that it holds or fails to hold for any given body. (Huygens, at least in his post-Principia views, constitutes a special case.) Thus, for those who denied the first thesis, it was necessary to secure a definition, or an analysis, of what it means for a body be in true motion (and what determines the quantity of that motion), so as to be as adequate to the facts as Newton's characterization of true motion. The figures mentioned above all deemed that motion relative to other bodies is a necessary condition for true motion, although not, by itself, a sufficient condition.

Over the course of years, the consensus in the 17th and early 18th Centuries on thesis (2) was lost sight of, and it became common to characterize Newton's opponents as denying that there is a fact of the matter as to whether a body is in true motion and maintaining instead that all motion is merely relative motion. Thus, modern readers expect that Newton's Scholium on space, time, and motion should be read as arguing not only thesis (1) above, but also thesis (2), that all motion is not merely relative motion, but that some motions are true and absolute. Newton's arguments concerning motion, however, are designed to show, not that true motion is distinct from merely relative motion (which is granted by all), but rather that the only feasible analysis of true motion requires reference to absolute places, and thus the existence of absolute space.

In particular it has been assumed that Newton's so-called &ldquorotating bucket experiment&rdquo, together with the later example of a pair of globes connected by a chord and revolving about their center of gravity, is supposed to argue, or provide evidence for, the existence of true, or absolute, motion. Not only is this false, but the two cases have distinct purposes in the framework of the Scholium. The rotating bucket experiment is the last of five arguments from the &ldquoproperties, causes, and effects of motion&rdquo designed to show cumulatively that an adequate analysis of true motion must involve reference to absolute space. In contrast, the example of the revolving globes is intended to illustrate how it is that, despite the fact that absolute space is invisible to the senses, it is nonetheless possible to infer the quantity of absolute motion of individual bodies in various cases.

The Solar System, in which we live, consists of the Sun as its central star, eight planets with their moons and several dwarf planets. Together with hundreds of thousands of asteroids (boulders from the size of small pebbles to the size of a dwarf planet) and comets, these celestial bodies orbit the Sun.

The Earth is a very special planet among these celestial bodies. It is our home! In order to understand its uniqueness, students need to compare the Earth to the other planets in the Solar System. The Earth is located about 150 million kilometers from the Sun, giving a temperature that is exactly right for liquid water to be present on the surface, unlike on other planets. This proved crucial for the development of life!

The Solar System as a whole is part of the Milky Way galaxy, a collection of about 200 billion stars that are arranged in a spiral, along with gas and dust. Billions of these stars have planets and these, in turn, have moons. This suggests that we are probably not alone in the Milky Way, but the distances between the stars are so big that a visit to another world would be very difficult.

Even the star nearest to us, Proxima Centauri, is 4.22 light years (i.e., over 40 trillion kilometres) away from us. This is so distant that a journey there would take generations of human lives.

Planets that orbit stars other than our Sun are called extrasolar planets or exoplanets for short. Astronomers have already discovered more than 3500 of these exoplanets and regularly discover more. We can categorise the planets of our Solar System into two types: rocky planets, which are nearest to the Sun and have a solid surface, and gas giants, which are farther from the Sun and are more massive and mainly composed of gas. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars appear in the former category, and Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune make up the latter. Pluto, our formerly outermost planet, has been considered a dwarf planets since 2006. Between Mars and Jupiter is a so-called asteroid belt, which circles the Sun like a ring. It consists of thousands of smaller and larger boulders. The largest of these have their own names, just like the planets. One of them, Ceres, is so large that it is considered a dwarf planet.

### The Planets

Planets are spherical bodies orbiting a star. They have sufficient mass to have purged their orbits of all larger and smaller boulders thanks to their gravitational pull. Dwarf planets are also spherical and orbit a star, but they have small masses and therefore such weak gravity that they are not capable of attracting smaller boulders in their vicinity. Currently (in 2016) five dwarf planets have been identified: Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake and Eris. Moons are often spherical as well, depending on their size, but they orbit planets.

Each of the planets in our Solar System has very specific features. We have summarised them in the fact files below. The following rule of thumb is valid in the Solar System: small planets lie close to the Sun and are made of solid material, while large planets are farther away from the Sun and are mainly composed of gas. This is not necessarily true for planets around other stars, some of which have planets like Jupiter much closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun in our Solar System.

### Rocky Planets

The four rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) are very dense (solid) and comparatively small. Their atmospheres are very thin or non-existent (Mercury), with the exception of that of Venus.

### Mercury

Mercury is the planet nearest to the Sun. It has no atmosphere and its solid surface, like that of our Moon, is covered with many craters. Mercury orbits the Sun once in just 88 days and has no moons. There are severe temperature differences on its surface: 380° C on the side facing the Sun, and -180° C on the night side! This is because day and night shift very slowly on Mercury, because of its slow spin. Also, there is no atmosphere to trap the heat at night.

Venus is about as large as the Earth. Carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) makes up 99% of its atmosphere, which causes sunlight to get trapped in this mega greenhouse. Whether it is day or night, it is always very hot on Venus: almost 500° C! While the other Solar System planets rotate in the same direction, anticlockwise, Venus rotates backwards, clockwise.

### Earth

Earth is the only planet in the Solar System that has liquid water on its surface, significant amounts of oxygen in the air and moderate temperatures. It orbits the Sun once a year. Its stable axis (inclined 23 degrees) results in seasons. Furthermore, it is the only celestial body on which we have found life so far.

Mars is half the size of the Earth. Its reddish colour is caused by iron oxide (rust). It has a very thin atmosphere, which mainly consists of carbon dioxide. One of its special features is its many extinct volcanoes, which reach heights of up to 22,000 metres! Mars has two very small moons and needs about twice as much time as the Earth to orbit the Sun. Like Earth, it also has seasons, as its rotation axis is inclined.

### Gas Giants

The ‘gas giants’ are so-called because they are large compared to other planets and they are composed mostly of gas. They consist of a mighty atmosphere and a relatively small solid core.

### Jupiter

Jupiter is the largest planet in our Solar System. Like all giant planets, it mainly consists of gas and has a small solid core and a thin ring system. It has a remarkable red spot on its surface that is twice the size of the Earth! This spot is a huge storm (a cyclone) that has been raging for more than 400 years. It has at least 67 moons (in 2016) and is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

### Saturn

Saturn is surrounded by large rings and therefore earns its nickname ‘Lord of the rings’. These rings consist of numerous small ice grains. Saturn’s atmosphere has a fairly low density: Saturn is the only planet in the Solar System that could float on water. It has many moons: more than 60 (62 in 2016) and other unnamed ‘moonlets’.

### Uranus

Uranus has a few thin rings. Its surface looks very smooth and barely shows any structure. It has 27 known moons (2016).

Neptune’s surface has a blue colour, like that of Uranus. White clouds fly over its surface at speeds of over 1000 km/hr. Neptune’s path sometimes crosses the orbit of dwarf planet Pluto. The planet has a thin ring system and 14 known moons (2016).

Dwarf Planet: Pluto

Pluto is composed of ice and rock. In 2006, astronomers decided that Pluto should no longer be classed as a planet but only a dwarf planet, although it is spherical. Due to its low mass, it cannot attract smaller boulders in its vicinity, as the ‘real’ planets do. Pluto has one larger and two smaller moons. Currently, in 2016, there are 4 other planets considered as dwarf planets that could be added to the game on an equal standing with Pluto: Ceres, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris.

Our knowledge of the Solar System

Astronomy research and tools evolve and improve very quickly. Our knowledge about space including our Solar System is extensive but not complete and it is constantly growing. Therefore, data given in the present resource might become incomplete or inaccurate over time. This might be illustrated with Pluto, considered for many years as the ninth planet of the Solar System and today identified as a dwarf planet.

### Exoplanets

Exoplanets, also called "extrasolar planets” are worlds orbiting other stars. Thousands of possible exoplanets have been found through ground-based and space-based observatories. Nearly 3,500 have been confirmed the rest are awaiting further observations so that astronomers can be sure that they are planets. Astronomers estimate that there could be trillions of planets around other stars.

The known exoplanets fall along a range of sizes, masses, and orbital positions. Sizes and masses range from smaller and less massive than Earth to super-Jupiter types of worlds. Orbital positions range from very close to the parent star to very distant. Among other characteristics, astronomers can measure the surface temperatures, orbits, magnetic fields, and colors of exoplanets. As detection methods improve, they will be able to find out more about distant worlds.

## The present status and prospects in the research of orbital dynamics and control near small celestial bodies *

Small celestial body exploration is of great significance to deep space activities. The dynamics and control of orbits around small celestial bodies is of top priority in the exploration research. It includes the modeling of dynamics environment and the orbital dynamics mechanism. This paper introduced state-of-the-art researches, major challenges, and future trends in this field. Three topics are mainly discussed: the gravitational field modeling of irregular-shaped small celestial bodies, natural orbital dynamics and control, and controlled orbital dynamics. Finally, constructive suggestions are made for China's future space exploration missions.

## Using a Volume Discretization Method to Compute the Surface Gravity of Irregular Small Bodies ☆

In the orbit design for small body exploration missions, it is important to take the effect of the gravitation of the small body into consideration. However, the majority of small bodies in the solar system are irregularly shaped with a non-uniform density distribution, this makes it difficult to precisely calculate the gravitational ﬁelds of these bodies. This paper proposes a method to model the gravitational ﬁeld of an irregularly shaped small body, and calculate the corresponding spherical harmonic coefficients. This method is based on the shape of the small body resulted from the observed light curve, and uses ﬁnite volume elements to approximate the body shape. The spherical harmonic coefficients can be derived numerically by computing the integrals according to their deﬁnitions. A comparison is made with the polyhedron method. Taking the asteroid (433) Eros as an example, the spherical harmonic coefficients calculated by this method are compared with the result derived from the inversion of the NEAR (Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) spacecraft’ orbit data, and the comparison shows that the error of C20 is less than 2%. Using this method, we have calculated the gravity ﬁeld of (1996) FG3 which is a candidate target in our future space exploration mission. Taking (4179) Toutatis, the target body of the Chang’e 2's ﬂyby mission, as an example, the distribution of surface gravitational potential is calculated, in combination with the shape model derived from the radar data, it provides a theoretical basis for analyzing the surface soil distribution and ﬂow direction from the optical images obtained in this mission. This method suits the objects of inhomogeneous density distribution, and can be used to provide the reliable gravitational data of small bodies for the orbit design and landing in future asteroid exploration missions.

## Einstein taught us: It’s all ‘relative’

This image shows that celestial objects make dents in the fabric of space-time. The Earth, being 81 times more massive than its moon (right), induces a much greater curvature. According to general relativity, this curvature is what we perceive as gravity.

Mark Garlick / Science Source

November 4, 2015 at 7:15 am

While still a relatively young scientist, Albert Einstein painted a new picture of the universe. Some of his final brush strokes emerged on November 4, 1915 — a century ago today. That’s when this physicist shared the first of four new papers with the Prussian Academy in Berlin, Germany. Together, those new papers would outline what would be his general theory of relativity.

Before Einstein came along, scientists believed that space always stayed the same. Time moved at a rate that never changed. And gravity pulled massive objects toward each other. Apples fell from trees to the ground because of the Earth’s strong pull.

All of those ideas came from the mind of Isaac Newton, who wrote about them in a famous 1687 book. Albert Einstein was born 192 years later. He grew up to show that Newton was wrong. Space and time were not unvarying, as Newton had described them. And Einstein had a better idea about gravity.

Earlier, Einstein had discovered that time does not always flow at the same rate. It slows down if you are moving very fast. If you were traveling at high speed in a spaceship, any clocks onboard or even your pulse rate would slow down compared with your friends back home on Earth. That clock-slowing is part of what Einstein called his special theory of relativity.

An artist’s drawing of a black hole named Cygnus X-1. It formed when a large star caved in. It’s seen here pulling in matter from a nearby blue star. Black holes are so massive that nothing can escape their gravitational clutches. NASA/CSC/M. Weiss Later, Einstein would realize that space, too, was not always constant. It changed notably in the neighborhood of very massive objects, such as a planet, the sun or a black hole . So a spaceship — or even a ray of light — would move on a curved line through space as it neared a massive object. And that was because that massive object had contorted the shape of the space.

Einstein also showed that the way mass alters space makes bodies move as if they were pulling upon each other, just as Newton had described. So Einstein’s theory was a different way of describing gravity. But it was also a more accurate one. Newton’s idea worked when gravity is not especially strong on all scales, such as near the sun or maybe a black hole. Einstein’s descriptions, by contrast, would work even in these environments.

It took several years for Einstein to figure all of this out. He had to learn new kinds of math. And his first try didn’t really work. But finally, in November 1915, he found the right equation for describing gravity and space. He called this new idea for gravity the general theory of relativity.

Relativity is the key word here. Einstein’s math had indicated that time would not seem to slow down to an observer who was speeding along. It only showed up by comparing that person’s time relative to what it was back on Earth.

Nor was time the only thing that could stretch with relativity. In Einstein’s theory, time and space are closely related. So events in the universe are referred to as locations in spacetime. Matter moves through spacetime along curving pathways. And those pathways are created by the effect of matter on spacetime.

Today scientists believe that Einstein’s theory is the best way to describe not only gravity, but also the entire universe.

#### Strange — but very useful

Relativity sounds like a very strange theory. So why did anyone believe it? At first, many people didn’t. But Einstein pointed out that his theory was better than Newton’s theory of gravity because it solved a problem about the planet Mercury.

Astronomers keep good records about the orbits of planets moving about the sun. Mercury’s orbit puzzled them. Each trip around the sun, Mercury’s closest approach was a little beyond where it had been the orbit before. Why would the orbit change like that?

Some astronomers said that gravity from other planets must be tugging on Mercury and shifting its orbit a bit. But when they did the calculations, they found that gravity from the known planets couldn’t explain all of the shift. So some thought there might be another planet, closer to the sun, that also tugged on Mercury.

Photo of the planet Mercury passing between the Earth and Sun. Mercury appears as a small black dot silhouetted against the sun’s brilliant surface. Fred Espenak / Science Source Einstein disagreed, arguing there was no other planet. Using his theory of relativity, he calculated how much Mercury’s orbit should shift. And it was exactly what astronomers had measured.

Still, this did not satisfy everyone. So Einstein recommended another way that scientists might test his theory. He pointed out that the sun’s mass should bend the light from a distant star slightly as its beam passed near to the sun. That bending would make the star’s position in the sky look like it was slightly moved from where it would usually be. Of course, the sun is too bright to see stars just beyond its edges (or anywhere when the sun is shining). But during a total eclipse, the sun’s intense light briefly becomes masked. And now stars become visible.

In 1919, astronomers trekked to South America and Africa to view a total eclipse of the sun. To test Einstein’s theory, they measured the locations of some stars. And the shift in the stars’ location was just what Einstein’s theory had predicted.

From then on, Einstein would be known as the man who replaced Newton’s theory of gravity.

#### Newton is still mostly right.

Newton’s theory still works pretty well in most instances. But not for everything. For example, Einstein’s theory called for gravity to slow down some clocks. A clock on a beach should tick just a bit slower than one on a mountaintop, where gravity is weaker.

The May 29, 1919, solar eclipse taken by the British astronomer Arthur Eddington on Principe Island, Gulf of Guinea. The stars he saw during this eclipse (not visible in this image) confirmed Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Stars near the sun appeared slightly shifted because their light had been curved by the sun’s gravitational field. This shift is only noticeable when the sun’s brightness does not obscure the stars, as during this eclipse. Royal Astronomical Society / Science Source It’s not a big difference, and not even important if all you want to know is when it’s time for lunch. But it can matter big-time for things like the GPS devices you might have seen in cars that give driving directions. These global-positioning-system devices pick up signals from satellites. A GPS device can identify where you are by comparing the differences in the time it takes for a signal to arrive from each of several satellites. Those times have to be adjusted for the way time slows down on the ground compared to in space. Without adjusting for that effect of general relativity, your location could be off by more than a mile. Why? The mismatch in time would grow, second by second, since the ground clock and the satellite’s clock were keeping time at different rates.

But the benefits of general relativity go far beyond just helping us stay on the right road. It helps science explain the universe.

Early on, for instance, scientists studying general relativity realized that the universe might be getting bigger all the time. Only later would astronomers show that the universe actually is expanding. The math used to explain general relativity also led experts to foresee that fantastic objects like black holes could exist. Black holes are regions of space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape, even light. Einstein’s theory also suggests that gravity can create ripples in space that speed across the universe. Scientists have built huge structures using lasers and mirrors to try to detect those ripples, known as gravitational waves.

Einstein didn’t know about such things as gravitational waves and black holes when he started working on his theory. He was just interested in trying to figure out gravity. Finding the right math to describe gravity, he reasoned, would make sure that scientists could find laws of motion that would not depend on how anybody was moving.

And it makes sense, when you think about it.

The laws of motion should be able to describe how matter moves, and how that motion is affected by forces (such as gravity or magnetism).

#### Gravity = acceleration?

But what happens when it is two people that are moving in different speeds and directions? Would both use the same laws to describe what they see? Think about it: If you’re riding on a merry-go-round, the movements of people nearby look very different from what they look like to someone standing still.

In his first theory of relativity (known as the “special” one) Einstein showed that two people in motion could both use the same laws — but only as long as each was moving in straight lines at a constant speed. He couldn’t figure out how to make one set of laws work when people moved in a circle or changed speed.

Then he found a clue. One day he was looking out of his office window and imagined someone falling off the roof of a nearby building. Einstein realized that, while falling, that person would feel weightless. (Please do not try jumping off a building to test this, though. Take Einstein’s word for it.)

To someone on the ground, gravity would appear to make the person fall faster and faster. In other words, the speed of their fall would accelerate. Gravity, Einstein suddenly realized, was the same thing as acceleration!

Imagine standing on the floor of a rocket ship. There are no windows. You feel your weight against the floor. If you try to lift your foot, it wants to go back down. So maybe your ship is on the ground. But it is also possible that your ship might be flying. If it is moving upward at a faster and faster speed — accelerating smoothly by just the right amount — your feet will feel pulled to the floor just as they had when the ship was sitting on the ground.

Artwork illustrating the curvature of spacetime due to the presence of celestial bodies. As predicted by Einstein, the mass of Earth and its moon creates gravitational dips in the fabric of spacetime. That spacetime is shown here on a two-dimensional grid (with gravitational potential represented by a third dimension). In the presence of a gravitational field, spacetime becomes warped, or curved. So the shortest distance between two points usually is not a straight line but a curved one. Victor de Schwanberg / Science Source Once Einstein realized that gravity and acceleration are one and the same, he thought he could find a new theory of gravity. He just had to find the math that would describe any possible acceleration for any object. In other words, no matter how the motions of objects appeared from one point of view, you would have a formula to describe them just as correctly from any other point of view.

Finding that formula did not prove easy.

For one thing, objects moving through space with gravity don’t follow straight lines. Imagine an ant walking across a sheet of paper without changing direction. Its path should be straight. But suppose there’s a bump in the path because a marble is under the paper. When walking over the bump, the ant’s path would curve. The same thing happens to a beam of light in space. A mass (like a star) makes a “bump” in space just like the marble under the paper.

Because of this effect of mass on space, the math for describing straight lines on a flat sheet of paper doesn’t work anymore. That flat-paper math is known as Euclidean geometry. It describes things like shapes made from segments of lines and angles where lines cross. And it works fine on flat surfaces, but not on bumpy surfaces or curved surfaces (such as the outside of a ball). And it doesn’t work in space where mass makes space bumpy or curved.

So Einstein needed a new kind of geometry. Luckily, some mathematicians had already invented what he needed. It is called, not surprisingly, non-Euclidean geometry. At the time, Einstein didn’t know anything about it. So he got help from a math teacher from his school days. With his new knowledge about this improved geometry, Einstein was now able to move ahead.

Until he got stuck again. That new math worked for many points of view, he found, but not all possible ones. He concluded that this was the best he — or anybody — could do. Nature just wouldn’t allow the complete theory of gravity that Einstein wanted.

But then he got a new job. He moved to Berlin, to a physics institute where he did not have to teach. He could spend all of his time thinking about gravity, undistracted. And, here, in 1915, he saw a way to make his theory work. In November, he wrote four papers outlining the details. He presented them to a major German science academy.

#### The really big picture

Soon afterwards, Einstein began thinking about what his new theory of gravity would mean for understanding the whole universe. To his surprise, his equations suggested that space could be expanding or shrinking. The universe would have to be getting bigger or it would collapse as gravity pulled everything together. But at that time, everybody thought the size of the universe today was as it had always been and always would be. So Einstein tweaked his equation to make sure the universe would stay still.

Years later, Einstein admitted that had been a mistake. In 1929, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe truly is expanding. Galaxies, huge clumps of stars, flew apart from each other in all directions as space expanded. This meant that Einstein’s math had been right the first time.

Based largely on Einstein’s theory, astronomers today have figured out that the universe we live in began in a big explosion. Called the Big Bang, it took place almost 14 billion years ago. The universe started out tiny but has been growing bigger ever since.

Born in 1879, Albert Einstein was 36 years old when he issued the papers that would describe general relativity and soon change how the world viewed both space and time. Six years later he would claim the 1921 Nobel Prize in physics (although it wouldn’t be issued to him until 1922). He did not win for relatively but instead for what the Nobel Committee described as “his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.” Mary Evans / Science Source Over the years, many experiments and discoveries have shown that Einstein’s theory is the best explanation that scientists have for gravity and many features of the universe. Weird things in space, like black holes, were predicted by people studying general relativity long before astronomers discovered them. Whenever new measurements are made of things like the bending of light or the slowing of time, general relativity’s math always gets the right answer.

Clifford Will works at the University of Florida, in Gainesville, where is an expert on relativity . “It is remarkable that this theory, born 100 years ago out of almost pure thought, has managed to survive every test,” he has written.

Without Einstein’s theory, scientists wouldn’t understand very much about the universe at all.

Yet when Einstein died, in 1955, very few scientists were studying his theory. Since then, the physics of general relativity has grown to become one of the most important theories in the history of science. It helps scientists explain not only gravity, but also how the whole universe works. Scientists have used general relativity to map how matter is arranged in the universe. It’s also used to study the mysterious “dark matter” that doesn’t shine like stars. General relativity’s effects also help in the search for faraway worlds now known as exoplanets.

“The implications for the further reaches of the universe,” the famous physicist Stephen Hawking once wrote, “were more surprising than even Einstein ever realized.”

### Power Words

acceleration A change in the speed or direction of some object.

astronomy The area of science that deals with celestial objects, space and the physical universe. People who work in this field are called astronomers.

Big Bang The rapid expansion of dense matter that, according to current theory, marked the origin of the universe. It is supported by physics&rsquo current understanding of the composition and structure of the universe.

black hole A region of space having a gravitational field so intense that no matter or radiation (including light) can escape.

dark matter Physical objects or particles that emit no detectable radiation of their own. They are believed to exist because of unexplained gravitational forces that they appear to exert on other, visible astronomical objects.

eclipse The temporary masking of one celestial body (such as the sun or moon) by another passing in front of it (from our vantage point on Earth). An eclipse can be full, where the more distant object totally disappears for a time, or partial, where some part of it remains visible at all times to viewers on Earth.

equation In mathematics, the statement that two quantities are equal. In geometry, equations are often used to determine the shape of a curve or surface.

Euclid A famous ancient mathematician born around 325 B.C. and who has come to be known as the father of geometry. He taught in Alexandria, Egypt, and wrote a book that would serve as the foundation for mathematical teaching over the next two millennia. It was known simply as The Elements.

Euclidian geometry It describes the mathematical relationships between points, lines and other shapes on a flat plane. For instance, it showed that in this environment, the shortest path between two points is a straight line the sum of all angles in any triangle equals 180 degrees and that parallel lines will never cross, no matter how long they are extended.

geometry The mathematical study of shapes, especially points, lines, planes, curves and surfaces.

global positioning system Best known by its acronym GPS, this system uses a device to calculate the position of individuals or things (in terms of latitude, longitude and elevation &mdash or altitude) from any place on the ground or in the air. The device does this by comparing how long it takes signals from different satellites to reach it.

gravity waves (also known as gravitational waves) Ripples in the fabric of space that are produced when masses undergo sudden acceleration. Some are believed to have been unleashed during the Big Bang, when the universe got its explosive start .

gravity Schools tend to teach that gravity is the force that attracts anything with mass, or bulk, toward any other thing with mass. The more mass that something has, the greater its gravity. But Einstein&rsquos general theory of relativity redefined it, showing that gravity is not an ordinary force, but instead a property of space-time geometry. Gravity essentially can be viewed as a curve in spacetime, because as a body moves through space, it follows a curved path owing to the far greater mass of one or more objects in its vicinity.

Isaac Newton This English physicist and mathematician became most famous for describing his law of gravity. Born in 1642, he developed into a scientist with wide-ranging interests. Among some of his discoveries: that white light is made from a combination of all the colors in the rainbow, which can be split apart again using a prism the mathematics that describe the orbital motions of things around a center of force that the speed of sound waves can be calculated from the density of air early elements of the mathematics now known as calculus and an explanation for why things &ldquofall:&rdquo the gravitational pull of one object towards another, which would be proportional to the mass of each. Newton died in 1727.

laser A device that generates an intense beam of coherent light of a single color. Lasers are used in drilling and cutting, alignment and guidance, in data storage and in surgery.

magnetism The attractive influence, or force, created by certain materials, called magnets, or by the movement of electric charges.

mass A number that shows how much an object resists speeding up and slowing down &mdash basically a measure of how much matter that object is made from.

matter Something which occupies space and has mass. Anything with matter will weigh something on Earth.

orbit The curved path of a celestial object or spacecraft around a star, planet or moon. One complete circuit around a celestial body.

physics The scientific study of the nature and properties of matter and energy. Classical physics is an explanation of the nature and properties of matter and energy that relies on descriptions such as Newton&rsquos laws of motion. Quantum physics, a field of study which emerged later, is a more accurate way of explaining the motions and behavior of matter. A scientist who works in that field is known as a physicist.

planet A celestial object that orbits a star, is big enough for gravity to have squashed it into a roundish ball and it must have cleared other objects out of the way in its orbital neighborhood. To accomplish the third feat, it must be big enough to pull neighboring objects into the planet itself or to sling-shot them around the planet and off into outer space. Astronomers of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) created this three-part scientific definition of a planet in August 2006 to determine Pluto&rsquos status. Based on that definition, IAU ruled that Pluto did not qualify. The solar system now includes eight planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

relativity A theory developed by physicist Albert Einstein showing that neither space nor time are constant, but instead affected by one&rsquos velocity and and the mass of things in your vicinity.

satellite A moon orbiting a planet or a vehicle or other manufactured object that orbits some celestial body in space.

spacetime A term made essential by Einstein&rsquos theory of relativity, it describes a designation for some spot given in terms of its three-dimensional coordinates in space, along with a fourth coordinate corresponding to time.

star The basic building block from which galaxies are made. Stars develop when gravity compacts clouds of gas. When they become dense enough to sustain nuclear-fusion reactions, stars will emit light and sometimes other forms of electromagnetic radiation. The sun is our closest star.

theory (in science) A description of some aspect of the natural world based on extensive observations, tests and reason. A theory can also be a way of organizing a broad body of knowledge that applies in a broad range of circumstances to explain what will happen. Unlike the common definition of theory, a theory in science is not just a hunch. Ideas or conclusions that are based on a theory &mdash and not yet on firm data or observations &mdash are referred to as theoretical. Scientists who use mathematics and/or existing data to project what might happen in new situations are known as theorists.

universe The entire cosmos: All things that exist throughout space and time. It has been expanding since its formation during an event known as the Big Bang, some 13.8 billion years ago (give or take a few hundred million years).

### Citations

S. Ornes. “An invisible cosmic bridge.” Science News for Students. July 23, 2012.

S. Ornes. “Dark matter search turns up empty.” Science News for Students. May 8, 2012.

S. Ornes. “‘Ruler’ to measure space.” Science News for Students. April 16, 2012.

S. Ornes. “Mapping the invisible.” Science News for Students. February 1, 2012.

S. Ornes. “The dark side of the universe.” Science News for Students. April 26, 2011.

S. Ornes. “Black hole mysteries.” Science News for Students. May 29, 2013.

## Nibirian matix of apocalypce | Alien Abductions and Extraterrestrial Entities | Forum

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Nibiran matrix of apocalypse.

(translation may not be accurate)

In this article, I tried to use the scientific approach as much as possible, and give an idea of the planet Nibiru and its connection with the Earth. Perhaps much of this is already known to you, and perhaps some of this is mistaken. I could write a whole book about it, but there is no time for this, as events unfold very quickly. The impending financial crisis, which will create an army of the unemployed, and large stocks of cheap oil, are components that should give an impetus to the third world war into which humanity wants to plunge.

Recently, ideas about secret organizations, shadow governments, control of the consciousness of society, conspiracies and alien creatures that feed on our energy have gained great popularity. In most cases, all these stories do not find confirmation.

The thing is that the evidence is right under our nose, but we are not able to see it, because our perception and ability to realize is limited. And only beyond the boundaries of the ordinary state of consciousness, a person can see that our world is not at all the way we perceive it.

The key point in this article is a very unusual dream, seen in early childhood, in an extremely altered state of consciousness as a result of fever. And then an attempt to compare it with objective reality, and putting concrete facts into a logical picture, will finally be convinced of the existence of what can be called the Nibiran matrix of apocalypse.

I was 8 years old. That was in the early 90's. That day there was a very severe frost and I had to go far because the transport did not go. I got sick and I started raving.

I began to see nightmares about the flood and the end of the world. I had the feeling that something terrible was threatening our world. Then I ended up in the darkness of space, far from the stars, and I saw a huge planet there. It was reminiscent of how the cities of the earth are visible from outer space and was covered with something cloudy like atmosphere or fog. This planet exuded horror, which I had never experienced in my life. Then, in a long spiral, I hit the solar system and saw a parade of planets there. When I got into the room, I started walking on it and after a while I realized that I was still sleeping.

This dream was forgotten for many years, until it began to become prophetic. At first, images from this dream began to appear in popular culture: the absolute evil from the movie “The 5th Element”, the planet Nibiru and the like. But most of all, the impression was made by a giant prominence near the Sun, of a clear rounded shape, which shown on television news as "filling the UFO in the Sun." I suggested that this is an astral parasite that can be seen in the aura of the Sun.

This was the last straw that led to an attempt to put together the most complicated puzzle of scraps of dreams, Internet fakes and rumors about the secret organizations behind all this related to aliens and occultism.

Having studied information from different fields of knowledge, comparing them with my vision, I came to the conclusion that the Earth is a farm for the production of psychic energy, the most universal energy in the universe -
power of mind.

The main resource is the power of mind.

Changes in the state of a person during prayer are most accurately recorded by modern devices. Employees of the Psychoneurological Research Institute. V.M. Bekhterev tried to record electroencephalograms (EEGs) of the praying students of the Theological Academy and Seminary. They were shocked by what they discovered. The biorhythms of the brain during prayer changed significantly, the brain began to emit mainly delta rhythms with a frequency of 2-3 Hz.
Delta-rhythm (-rhythm) or delta-wave - the EEG rhythm consists of high-amplitude (hundreds of microvolts) waves with a frequency of 1-4 Hz. It occurs both in deep natural sleep and in narcotic, as well as in coma. The delta rhythm is also observed when EEG is recorded from areas of the cortex bordering the area of ​​the traumatic focus or tumor.

Low-amplitude (20-30 μV) oscillations of this range can be recorded at rest of the EEG with some forms of stress and prolonged mental work.
It is known that there is a connection between the work of the brain and the magnetic field of the Earth, which we feel during magnetic storms. It is also known that the Earth’s field is interconnected with the magnetic fields of other bodies and the galaxy as a whole. The human biofield has a structure similar to the structure of the electromagnetic field of other cosmic bodies, and the relationship between them is two-way - changes in one field will invariably affect the other, even to a very small extent.

If we look at the example of a galaxy, we can see that the substance that forms on its outskirts gradually compacts to the middle and eventually turns into a supermassive black hole in the center, where matter turns into energy and a shot from the poles, forming an electromagnetic field, which, in turn, connecting at the equator, turns into matter.

Thus, we get a continuous process of converting matter into energy and energy into matter. A thought born in consciousness is actually a modulated electromagnetic signal generated by the brain and carrying certain information. Electromagnetic radiation and its information component do not disappear without a trace. This forms the characteristics of the common field of the Earth, the Sun and the galaxy. An electromagnetic field that carries a frequency code of information is converted into a substance, stores it, which determines the characteristics of the substance.

It follows from this that - THOUGHTS MATERIAL. And this purely physical mechanism underlies the words - “according to your faith it will be given to you”, “ask and receive”, “you are gods, only your eyes have not opened yet”.
The generation of low frequencies during religious prayers is probably due to the fact that these frequencies are associated with a depressed state of consciousness, fear of God. Fear that destroys the integrity of consciousness leads to the effect of splitting consciousness, similar to splitting an atom with subsequent release of energy.
This explains the significance of sacrifice and the production of the energy of fear, provided that this energy can be accumulated and given direction. By pre-programming a person for a specific train of thought, you can give great strength to your own thoughts, using the energy of others. In other words - forcing people to visualize what you need, you use their psychic energy to translate the desired into reality.
The main resource extracted from the bows of centuries on Earth is the power of thought.

According to all these metaphysical principles, the last part of the Bible - the apocalypse, massively visualized in the minds of people, gradually leads to its embodiment in reality. In turn, the ancient Sumerian poem “Creation of the World”, on which Zacharia Sitchin built his theory of Nibiru, is essentially an exact copy and prototype of the biblical text “Apocalypse”.

For example, this passage from a Sumerian poem describes characters similar to the four horsemen of the apocalypse, and there are many similar analogies with the apocalypse:
He put them, he used the whole four in a team:

Killer, Villain, Topcheun, Quickskok.
In the smile of their mouth their fangs are poisonous.
They know no peace they know murder.
He set Ferocious and Onslaught to the right,
And on the left he set the Resistance - a reflection of the blows.
Horror, like a cloak, he covered.
To Tiamatu * he directed his furious path.
He put his spell in his mouth, He held
poisonous herbs in the hand.
Tiamat and Marduk went to each other, he is the wisest of the gods,
They rushed into battle, converged in battle.
* Tiamat is where the Earth came from as a result of the actions described below.

Carrying out similar comparisons further, we can conclude that the Sumerian Marduk and the biblical God are one and the same character. Tiamat from the Sumerian poem can be compared to a woman dressed in the sun, described in the apocalypse. And then it turns out that according to the Sumerian version, God and the dragon are one and the same.

We can conclude that the apocalypse is an event that should happen not only in the future, but also what has already happened in the past. It is possible that the purpose of using human resources is to create attraction for the planet Nibiru. All fakes like "Nibiru is already here" also contribute to this. The thought is material, and the thought of Nibiru draws it here.

Hundreds of years ago, the design of churches and temples took into account physical principles similar to those used today in electrical appliances. Organ music and choral singing together with a bell, resonating with the shape of the building, create powerful vibrations at the infrasound frequency, which can cause a person to have a corresponding state and configure him to play certain brain rhythms, which will be amplified many times due to resonance with the building. Gold, copper or other metal, which domes are often covered with, is an excellent conductor and can serve as a radio screen, and the shape of the bulb resembles a satellite dish or picture tube, which allows you to collect energy from a certain area and condense it at one point, then transferring it to the sky, to God through the antenna - the cross. Naturally, the energy collected in the temple is the biocurrents of praying parishioners, energy-informational charge of prayer, and by analogy with the HAARP psychotronic system, we can assume that it is directed straight into the ionosphere, for the introduction of certain thought forms propagated in the church into the planet’s consciousness.

The current growth rate of zombie technologies has led to the fact that in construction of buildings, psychic technologies of an incredibly high level, hidden from the eyes of the layman, are used very often. Even after the war, the Soviet Union began to create multi-unit residential complexes equipped with centralized water supply, electricity and radio channels.

Centralization of the communication network means that the center has a complete monopoly on the supply of energy resources and the ability to introduce the required chemical and wave characteristics into it. Particular attention can be paid to radio and telephone, which, as you know, can now be used as a means of wiretapping. Even an ordinary power supply network can carry an electromagnetic frequency that affects a person’s body or carries a modulated signal that affects a person’s subconscious. Radio and television were, to a greater extent, an analogue of modern wireless communications, since the received and relayed signal covered a large area and was able to render an effect invisible to humans, unlike light and sound on TV.

Starting from communal apartments, ways of influencing the psyche through close concentration of people were tested. After all, when people are nearby, they exert influence on each other and as a result of the resonance achieved by ideological unanimity, the strength of the vibrational frequency increases. In this case, the house begins to resonate with the “general idea” and the frequency reproduced by it spreads over the entire district. At a minimum, this may be an infrasonic oscillation at a frequency of 2 hertz, causing a depressed state in people and making them susceptible to suggestion.

The construction of reinforced concrete buildings, begun later, made it possible to put into practice the principle of creating huge psi-generators inhabited by people. A significant concentration of people in a relatively small space allows you to focus on them a powerful radio signal without scattering, and the resonance effect tunes the entire building to a specific frequency.

The use of high density materials in the design, such as metal and concrete, provided high conductivity of vibrations, and the inertness of heavy materials allowed the use of energy storage technology when the specified frequency is stored for a long time. At the same time, concrete and metal create the effect of a radio screen, limiting the human biofield from external factors such as solar radiation and the rhythms of the biosphere, thereby forcing him to enter into resonance with the internal electromagnetic background.

“Cubism” in the architecture of apartment buildings is justified not only by the simplicity of manufacture, but also by the principles of reflection of electromagnetic waves, similar to those that are built into the radar mirror or into the great pyramids and which must be given the direction of the wave. Buildings have a rounded shape, have a more complex and efficient design, and are also designed to direct the wave.
As a result of the building’s electromagnetic waves, static electricity is generated.

The static charge accumulated on the spire of the building ionizes the air and, thus, goes into the ionosphere together with warm air, forming something like an invisible lightning falling from a lightning rod into the sky, thus working similarly to the HAARP antenna complex.

Scientists at Imperial College London have calculated that traces of inversion from airplanes in the air simultaneously create a tangible curtain that can affect the climate of the planet. However, no one ever thought about this side of the existence of traces of inversion.

Among the patents for inventions issued in the United States and held in the public domain, there is a patent 5.003.186 issued to employees of the airline "Hughes Aircraft Company" (Los Angeles, California) David Chang and I-Fu Shingu on March 26. , 1991, entitled "Welsbach's Stratospheric Crop for Reducing Global Warming." The invention provides for the creation in the atmosphere of our planet at heights of 7-13 km of a protective layer of microparticles sprayed with airplanes using certain chemicals.

The patent proposes the use of metal oxides and refractory materials with a particle size of 10 to 100 microns and indicates that the smaller the size, the longer the particles settle on the ground. The authors argue that such particles can be in the air for up to one year. The authors suggest an original way to disperse these chemicals in the atmosphere - to add them to aviation fuel so that these microparticles are dispersed in the jet stream of burnt fuel.
In combination with space debris in orbit, which consists mainly of metal conductors, an artificial metal dome is formed around the planet - a radio screen, which further enhances the psychic energy generated by cities through resonance.

One of the most modern ways of controlling the mind is to influence a person using a radio signal. Discoveries in the field “The property of higher organisms for distant interactions”, practically the discovery of telepathy sleeping in the human brain, the so-called sixth sense, made it possible to create methods of controlling consciousness that work on the principles of radio transmission, thereby expanding the possibilities of psychocorrection to an incredible scale.

A modern information network of mobile, satellite communications and the Internet, which has repeaters covering almost the entire globe, is an ideal tool for psi-influence, surpasses any other types of modern weapons in efficiency and turns our world into an ideal psychotronic prison from zombie slaves, fully controlled, self-reproducing robots, independently striving for this state of things.

Automation and cyberization.

The work on the creation of artificial intelligence, begun by cybernetics during the Cold War, has achieved certain results, which we can judge by the example of characters in computer games.

The most suitable example of a real-time military strategy allows you to see the capabilities of artificial intelligence based on conventional PC software for instant monitoring, responding to changing conditions of a complex virtual environment that exceeds human capabilities, and using advanced technologies. Computer technologies, for high-power orders with constant software updates and the introduction of self-learning computer technologies, allow us to synthesize automatic responses of artificial intelligence to a huge number of different factors.
Thus, the capabilities of artificial intelligence today have a huge advantage over human mental activity in the field of logical decisions and reaction speed.

It is likely that the existence or creation of remote tomography technology in the near future will allow you to scan a person’s mental processes at a distance and determine them on the basis of an existing database, as well as simulate the necessary type of thinking and automatically enter it into a person’s head, which allows you to simultaneously control a significant number of individuals without involving a large number of operators of psychotronic systems.

Thus, we get a global automated system for controlling consciousness, which tracks and corrects the mental activity of each individual person and humanity as a whole. Unconscious telepathy of people, their constant impact on each other, greatly enhances this effect.

The technologies for introducing electromechanical devices into the human body have been known for a long time, but the most widespread area of ​​this area is the mass production of man-machine complexes man-phone, man-computer, man-television. These electronic devices are not massively introduced into the human body, but closely interact with it at the wireless level, being a remote control and programming device.

Future chipization of the population with the subsequent introduction of technologies for delivering Internet data directly to the brain may be the next step after using electronic gadgets. This will lead to even tighter control of mental activity. It will be impossible for a person to independently disconnect from the information network. This will finally turn him into a radio-controlled biorobot.

The ideal option for fully and efficiently shielding the planet from the Sun and extracting psychic energy from people is the so-called nuclear winter, when as a result of a large number of nuclear explosions the clouds cover the sky for a long time. It is for the purely physical principles of planetary control, as well as for receiving magical energy FEAR that the slave-owning civilization of the Earth follows the path of artificially created financial crises, constantly unleashing conflicts, which ultimately should lead to the 3rd World War, in which robots are controlled by one center. This will establish ultimate control over the human consciousness, and will enclose it in a supertechnological matrix of consciousness, from which death is the only way out.

The ideal option is that all people gather in the evening near the TV screens in the houses of psi-generators, under an artificial dome of the sky. They will watch the news of the devastating war and in fear, generate a powerful charge of mental energy.

Control over the planet in space.

From ancient times, it was believed that the whole of world space is filled with ether - a subatomic gas-like substance from which all types of matter are formed and the entire surrounding world consists of. Theories of scientists, including the theory of gravity, were based on this statement. And even Newton initially agreed that the transfer of energy from one body to another, for example, the attraction of planets, can occur only through the medium. But later he changed his mind, and this became generally accepted thanks to his authority in the scientific community.

The first theory to explain gravity, the so-called screen theory, put forward in 1748 by Lomonosov. He suggested that the two bodies next to them were bombarded from all sides by ether particles, and due to the fact that these bodies cover each other, the pressure of the ether between them becomes less and they approach. T
Further, in 1856, the physicist Björknes put forward a pulsating theory, referring to a simple experiment in which two freely oscillating balls on water approached each other or repelled from the waves they created, depending on how they oscillated - in phase or half phase. The Englishman Cook conducted a similar experiment with cylinders simulating electrical, magnetic, and diamagnetic phenomena. The Guthrie experimenter (1870) showed experiments on the attraction and repulsion of oscillating tuning forks. In 1958, Stanyukovich conducted an experiment on the theory of the flow of Schott. The air blew into two hollow balls with many small holes. The outflow of air from the holes in the balls caused the balls to attract. All these experiments perfectly illustrated the mechanism of gravity, provided that the ether is the medium through which interactions between bodies are transmitted.

To prove the existence of ether, a series of experiments was also conducted. In the very first experiments in 1881, Michelson, using an interferometer, tried to measure the speed of the ether relative to the moving Earth and received an ethereal wind from 3 to 3.5 km / s, which did not correspond to the orbital speed of the planet at a speed of 30 km / s. This result can be explained by the fact that a large amount of ether is carried away by the Earth in the same way as the atmosphere. This experiment was criticized and its result was rejected. Another fact that indicates the existence of a subatomic medium is a potential lag, as a result of which the interaction force decreases as a result of the speed discovered by Gauss in 1835. Gauss died before he could publish his discovery, and this was done by his friend years later, when the theory of relativity was already created in science. As you know, the theory of relativity assumes that energy is transferred from atom to atom instantly. Therefore, in order for the theory to work, the curvature of the space of time — the measuring system — was invented. More recently, modern scientists have made a number of discoveries that do not fit into the theory of relativity. For example, superluminal photon propagation, discovered by a group of American scientists led by Alain Aspect. There are also many other experiments confirming the existence of ether. But they are not widely publicized, or denied by official science.
For example, Tesla's officially undocumented shear wave experience.

Carrying out my own research, I came to the conclusion that the shape of the flying saucer is ideal for movement in a vibrational wave manner. About this I wrote an article "Antigravity, engine, experiments with a flying saucer."

At the current rate of growth in the construction of large cities and the controlled extraction of people from the power of thought, in the probable future it is possible to organize such a power of a controlled electromagnetic flux that weather and earthquake management seemed like a child’s game.

The global impact on the electromagnetic field of the Earth will give it such a powerful charge that it will affect the interaction of the magnetic fields of the Earth and other celestial bodies, which, in turn, can literally change the orbit of the planet.
Together with a grid of artificially created clouds and space technology - communication satellites transmitting a certain frequency and metal debris in orbit, forming a resonator, we get a technogenic civilization, all of which are aimed at achieving goals of a cosmic scale.

In other words, entering the resonance with an average Earth frequency of 7.83 Hz will simply allow you to take control of a planetary body and gain the ability to influence other planets of the solar system.

A picture of the world in the representation of special services.

The last argument in favor of the concept of sacrificial wars and their connection with the movement of the planets can serve as a telepathic contact with some of the higher forces published in the book "The picture of the world in the representation of the special services." Authors Ratnikov and Rogozin. Here is an excerpt from this contact:

“QUESTION: The development of events on this planet is predetermined or does it all depend on the will of the people representing our civilization?
ANSWER: The mechanism consists in the interaction of planets and constellations, and you, losing memory and turning into a herd of wild rams, and without this memory you need to know that there are light planets, there are dark planets and when the dark planets Uranus, Pluto and Saturn line up in one line, strengthening its influence on the Earth's magnetic force field, powerful negative disasters begin to occur on Earth. They intensify grief, intensify the negative impact, people become cruel, they turn into animals, consciousness is lost, what accumulates over the millennia from one life to another, the restraining principle is lost, and a person more and more turns into an animal. If it is an egregor, then the nation as a whole loses the level of information fields,
QUESTION: How can we reconstruct the consciousness of all the people of the planet in a positive direction?
ANSWER: You intrude on the laws of the almighty Lord God, speaking your own language, believing that you can provide him with significant assistance in solving very urgent tasks in order to change the life path of many of you living in the most diverse outskirts of the Universe.
QUESTION: And how can this be done without violating the general laws of the development of Mankind?
ANSWER: The most effective way has already been indicated to humanity, and this is a huge system of reacting celestial bodies.
For this, it is necessary to be able to transmit information to those satellite systems that Mankind has already put into orbits around the Earth, and from there, using ultra-low frequencies, envelop them around the globe to transmit the necessary information to the subconscious level of every person on planet Earth and even animals.
But you are well aware that this system can be used both for the introduction of good and for evil. In this regard, you should know that people who use these mechanisms while living on planet Earth will try to find a moral beginning to satisfy their current needs, so they clog the air with promotional drinks, vouchers, promotions and various tours.
You want to do good to people, and therefore you can use the already existing system of perceiving information from space by people in the right hemisphere of the brain and unconscious mechanisms to correct the behavior of specific people as a result of receiving information from the depths of space. To do this, you just need to have mechanisms to tune from here from the Earth to a specific generator, which are the stars of the universe surrounding you.
To do this, you must fall into the frequency of a similar generator of a powerful star, which today captures the visible spectrum of the Universe and, using these frequencies, receives feedback about the effects and effects on earthly creatures moving across your Earth - people who go to schools, go to temples, theaters that are in prison, etc. ”

As we can see, in fact, our world is zealously following these tips, trying to send as much as possible the cry of innocent children into space. And the dark planets - Uranus, Pluto and Saturn, due to their mass, can play an important role in the gravitational interaction of planet X with the solar system. Only ways that go beyond the ordinary — the collective consciousness of the Earth — can influence this situation.

The alleged reasons for this situation are:
the most likely explanation for the existence of a highly developed civilization on a planet plowing interstellar space is the explosion of its own star. In the case of the completion of the life cycle of the luminary, the salvation of the inhabitants of its inhabited planets is a global problem and requires huge expenditures of energy and resources. With a high level of technology, it would be a very reasonable decision to turn the planet itself into a spaceship, leave the dying star system, and put it into the orbit of another star. It is possible even at the modern earthly level of technological development.

Probably, knowing the inevitable death of their star, the Nibiruans prepared themselves thoroughly, digging as deep as possible into the planet, creating a survival network of underground cities, the likeness of which is on Earth in the form of military bases. Using the technology of wave action on the electromagnetic field of the planet, they changed the frequency of its oscillations, moving the planet away from the star in advance.

To maintain and condense the artificial electromagnetic background, they surrounded the planet with a resonator made of metal conductors in space, mirrors and metal dust in orbit, and also created an artificial cloud cover, similar to our chemical traces. Such a “dome" around the planet allowed not only to reduce the frequency of oscillations of its magnetic field, but also played the role of electromagnetic protection against intense radiation from a star explosion. This shield took over the main blow, and also worked like a solar sail.
Naturally, away from the stars, life and the atmosphere on the surface of the planet are impossible, and cosmic cold contributes to the disappearance of internal heat, which requires significant resources to maintain. And so the introduction of such a planet into the orbit of any star for such a civilization is a matter of priority.

It is also likely that this planet has visited the solar system many times, and this is due to the elliptical orbit that rotates around the solar system, and the remnants of an extinct star. With acceleration, planet X will fly past the Sun each time and return. It is impossible to bring this into the orbit of the Sun at the same time, and therefore a gradual approach takes place with each turn. This is a common practice in astronautics, as when putting a spaceship into orbit of the moon.
With the addition of all the elements of the puzzle, it becomes obvious that the war of the gods described in ancient legends, the destroyed remains of megalithic structures, are the consequences of the war, as a result of which the inhabitants of Nibiru seized power on Earth. As a result of this, Atlantis sank to the bottom, many fertile territories, such as the Sahara, turned into deserts.

After this, Nibiru civilization proclaimed itself the supreme god, and people worship this God to this day, not assuming that their Lord, Sovereign and God are in fact the red horned devil Nibiru, his retinue is snakes, and the forbidden fruit, an apple that has become a prerequisite for the expulsion of people from paradise, today is replaced by the brain - psychotronic, in the production of which the APPLE corporation - a bitten apple - is the leader. Then the basic principles of masterful deception will become apparent - the trickiest lie is half-truth, and you can hide the secret by exposing it in full view.
And yet, Zakharia Sitchin claims that the frequency of the appearance of this planet with us is about once every 3600 years, and he took this information from the texts of the ancient Sumerians, who knew mathematics and astronomy very well.

An indisputable fact is that the Creation according to the Bible, the Hebrew calendar and the Sumerian texts was in 3761 BC. It is possible that year 0 is the birth of Christ, this is a new starting point after the second appearance of Nibiru. Based on this, it can be assumed that the next coming of God and the subsequent apocalypse, expected by the Christian religion, is nothing but the next arrival of the planet Nibiru. By calculating the arrival period in accordance with the reference cycles, we get that the second coming should occur around 3600 from the birth of Christ. Therefore, if such a planet exists, then now it should be at a considerable distance from the solar system, in interstelar darkness.

If you read it to the end, then remember that fear is the opposite of love, and the point of view changes reality.

## Meteoroids

They are rocky celestial bodies, smaller than asteroids, but larger than cosmic dust. They reach a maximum of 50 m in diameter.

These include remnants of fragmented asteroids and comets, debris from the formation of the solar system or rocks ejected from planets by colossal impacts.

When they reach the vicinity of Earth or any other planet and enter the atmosphere they are called meteors. The friction with atmospheric molecules heats them up and vaporizes them, due to the great speed with which they enter. The fragments that manage to hit the surface are known as meteorites.

## 2 Gravity Field Parametrizations

(1) (2) (3)

For the sake of simplicity we dropped the dependencies on the coordinates in equation 3. Table 1 summarizes the exterior solutions of equation 3 in spherical, spheroidal, and ellipsoidal coordinates. The following subsections give a brief exposition of their usage for gravitational field modeling.

Table 1. Exterior Solutions to Laplace's Equation in Four Different Parametrizations a a Parametrizations from top to bottom: spherical, oblate spheroidal, prolate spheroidal, and ellipsoidal. and Qnm are the associated Legendre functions of the first and second kind, respectively. and Fnm are the two kinds of Lamé functions. The vinculum indicates full normalization.
ζn ηn θn
e ±imλ
e ±imλ
e ±imλ
Fnm(ρ)
• a Parametrizations from top to bottom: spherical, oblate spheroidal, prolate spheroidal, and ellipsoidal. and Qnm are the associated Legendre functions of the first and second kind, respectively. and Fnm are the two kinds of Lamé functions. The vinculum indicates full normalization.

### 2.1 Spherical Harmonics

(4) where GM is the product of the gravitational constant and the total mass of the attracting body, R is the radius of the reference sphere, n and m are the degree and order of the expansion, respectively, is the fully normalized associated Legendre function of the first kind, and and are the dimensionless spherical harmonics coefficients.

### 2.2 Spheroidal Harmonics

Spheroidal coordinates rely on the definition of a reference figure, i.e., a spheroid with specified orientation and eccentricity. The counterpart to the radial coordinate r is the semiaxis of a spheroid confocal with the reference ellipse: the semiminor axis u in case of oblate spheroids and the semimajor axis v for prolate spheroids. The angular components are again the longitude λ and the reduced colatitudes ϑ (o) and ϑ (p) , where the superscripts o and p are introduced to distinguish between oblate and prolate coordinates.

(5) (6)

### 2.3 Ellipsoidal Harmonics

(7) (8) (9) where and Fnm are the Lamé functions of the first and the second kind, respectively. The second-kind function, Fnm(ρ), accounts for the radial attenuation of the gravitational signal, analogous to the functions Qnm in the spheroidal case. The coefficients correspond to the SH, OH, and PH coefficients and .

## Impact of light pollution on the visibility of astronomical objects in medium-sized cities in Central Europe on the example of the city of Rzeszów, Poland

This paper discusses the influence of light pollution of the night sky on the conditions of visibility of astronomical objects such as planets, stars and comets. This phenomenon has a huge impact on the observability of astronomical objects, especially in cities, where the brightness of the sky makes it difficult or even impossible to conduct astronomical observations. The main purpose of this article is to measure and analyse the surface brightness of the night sky in Rzeszów and its surroundings. A device called the Sky Quality Meter was used to measure the brightness of the night sky. This paper presents measurement results for the years 2015 and 2018, from which it is clear that the quality of the night sky has been deteriorated in terms of the observability of celestial bodies. As an example, the numerical value of the measurement for the centre of Rzeszów has been taken. In 2015, this value was (18.70pm 1.87) mag/arcsec (^<2>) , while in 2018, it was equal to (16.73pm 1.67) mag/arcsec (^<2>) . The results obtained were used to analyse the visibility of celestial bodies. Here, particular attention was paid to the analysis of the visibility of comets (also during the outburst), in the context of increasing light pollution of the night sky. Observers in neighboring villages have also experienced a change in the sky quality from Bortle Class V to Class VII, requiring objects to be approximately one magnitude brighter in order to be visible.

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