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A massive galaxy produces the curvature of the space around it, which causes the light to deflect. If this galaxy is not observed because it has low brightness, or if what we have is a massive body that does not emit light, the gravitational lens effect allows us to detect dark matter, revealed by multiple images of the distant light source.
The arch in Abell 370 was the first to be discovered, in 1985. Both sides have the same energy distribution and, therefore, both belong to the same structure. It was a young, relatively close galaxy. All these results confirm that the arc in Abell 370 is due to a gravitational lens that alters the radiation of a nearby galaxy.
It is clear that the observation of these giant arcs in distant clusters of galaxies has opened new fields of investigation of the phenomenon of gravitational lenses. We can imagine astrophysicists using rich clusters of galaxies as gravitational telescopes to investigate more distant objects.
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