Astronomy

Is there a way to know the time according the moon appearance?

Is there a way to know the time according the moon appearance?



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Is it possible know the time according to the moon location? To look at the sky at night and then determine what the time is.


It is not easy.

Knowing the time means (roughly) knowing the position of the sun. If you are in the Northern Hemisphere, then the sun is (roughly) South at midday, East at 6am, West at 6pm and so on.

The moon orbits the Earth, so the angle between the sun and the moon is always changing. It may be possible so reason as "The moon is at first quarter, so the angle between the sun and moon is 90 degrees. I can use the position of the moon to determine the position of the sun (below the horizon) and so estimate the time." There are problems with this, for example when the moon is nearly full, it will move through quite a large angle relative to the sun, with only a very small change in the amount of illumination.

With careful measurements and an almanack, it would be possible to find the local solar time. This wouldn't account for daylight saving time, or civil time that differs from solar time. There are much easier methods: get a sundial during the day and an hourglass for the nighttime. Or a watch.


What’s a Blue Moon, and when’s the next one?

Most Blue Moons are not blue in color. This photo of a moon among fast-moving clouds was created using special blue filters. Image via our friend Jv Noriega.

Next Blue Moon August 22, 2021

Our last Blue Moon came on October 31, 2020, the night of Halloween. Like most Blue Moons, it was blue in name only. It was called a Blue Moon because it was the second of two full moons in a single month.

There’s another definition for Blue Moon. It can also be the third of four full moons in a single season. A season is the period between a solstice and an equinox. The next Blue Moon will be of this sort, and it’ll happen on August 22, 2021.

In recent years, people have been using the name Blue Moon for these two different sorts of moons: second of two full moons in a calendar month, or third of four full moons in a single season.

Blue-colored moons in photos – like the ones on this page – are usually made using special blue camera filters or in a post-processing program such as PhotoShop. Usually … but not always.

Are moons ever blue in color?

Sure, they are, and someday you might see a true blue-colored moon in the sky.

Blue-colored moons are rare – aren’t necessarily full – and happen when Earth’s atmosphere contains dust or smoke particles of a certain size. The particles must be slightly wider than 900 nanometers.

You might find particles of this size in the air above you when, for example, a wildfire is raging nearby. Particles of this size are very efficient at scattering red light. When these particles are present in our air, and the moon shines through them, the moon may appear blue in color.

First, seasonal Blue Moons

By season, we’re referring to the period of time between a solstice and an equinox. Or vice versa. We’re talking about winter, spring, summer, fall. Each season typically lasts three months and typically has three full moons. The upcoming seasonal Blue Moon of August 22, 2021, happens because June’s full moon falls just a few days after the June solstice, early in the season of northern summer (southern winter).

And thus there’s enough time to squeeze four full moons into the current season, which will end at the September equinox on September 22, 2021.

Weirdly, it’s not the fourth of these four full moons that’ll be called a Blue Moon. It’s the third. Go figure.

Full moons between June 2021 solstice and September 2021 equinox:

June solstice: June 21, 2021

June full moon: June 24, 2021
July full moon: July 24, 2021
August full moon (a Blue Moon): August 22, 2021
September full moon: September 20, 2021

September solstice: September 22, 2021

How often do seasonal Blue Moons happen? Pretty often! There was a seasonal Blue Moon on November 21, 2010, another on August 20-21, 2013, another on May 21, 2016, and another on May 18, 2019. You get the idea.

The upcoming Blue Moon will be on August 22, 2021.

Desert Blue Moon from our friend Priya Kumar in Oman, August 2012. Thank you, Priya! Photos of blue moons, like this one, are made using blue filters.

Now, the 2nd full moon in a month

In modern times, most of us know Blue Moons as the second full moon of a single calendar month.

These happen a lot, too! By this definition, there was a Blue Moon on July 31, 2015 January 31, 2018 March 31, 2018 and October 31, 2020.

The time between one full moon and the next is close to the length of a calendar month. So the only time one month can have two full moons is when the first full moon happens in the first few days of the month. This happens every two to three years, so this sort of Blue Moon comes about that often.

Very rarely, a seasonal Blue Moon (3rd of four full moons in one season) and a monthly Blue Moon (2nd of two full moons in one calendar month) can occur in the same calendar year. For this to happen, you need 13 full moons between successive December solstices for a seasonal Blue Moon – and, generally, 13 full moons in one calendar year for a monthly Blue Moon.

This will next happen in the year 2048, when a monthly Blue Moon falls on January 31, and a seasonal Blue Moon on August 23.

Then 19 years later, in the year 2067, there will be a monthly Blue Moon on March 30, and a seasonal Blue Moon on November 20. In this instance, there are 13 full moons between successive December solstices – but only 12 full moons in one calendar year and no February 2067 full moon.

Blue Moons don’t really look blue in color. Greg Hogan got this shot of a Blue Moon (blue in name only!) on July 31, 2015. He wrote: “Having some fun with the blue moon idea … I blended the same image twice one with a blue tint, and one normal. :) “

Why call them Blue Moons?

The idea of a Blue Moon as the second full moon in a month is more recent – more modern – than the idea of a Blue Moon as the third of four full moons in a season. It stemmed from the March 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope magazine. The magazine published an article called “Once in a Blue Moon” by James Hugh Pruett. Pruett was referring to the 1937 Maine Farmer’s Almanac, which defined Blue Moons as the third of four full moons in a season. But he inadvertently simplified the definition. He wrote:

Seven times in 19 years there were – and still are – 13 full moons in a year. This gives 11 months with one full moon each and one with two. This second in a month, so I interpret it, was called Blue Moon.

Had James Hugh Pruett looked at the actual date of the 1937 Blue Moon, he would have found that it had occurred August 21, 1937. Also, there were only 12 full moons in 1937. You generally need 13 full moons in one calendar year to have two full moons in one calendar month.

However, that fortuitous oversight gave birth to a new and perfectly understandable definition for Blue Moon.

The notion of a Blue Moon as the second full moon of a calendar month was buried for decades. Then, in the late 1970s, EarthSky’s Deborah Byrd happened upon a copy of the old 1946 issue of Sky and Telescope in the stacks of the Peridier Library at the University of Texas Astronomy Department. Afterward, she began using the term Blue Moon to describe the second full moon in a calendar month on the radio series StarDate, which she wrote and produced.

Later, this definition of Blue Moon was also popularized by a book for children by Margot McLoon-Basta and Alice Siegel, called Kids’ World Almanac of Records and Facts, published in New York by World Almanac Publications in 1985. The second-full-moon-in-a-month definition was also used in the board game Trivial Pursuit.

Today, it has become part of modern folklore. As the folklorist Philip Hiscock wrote in his comprehensive article Once in a Blue Moon:

‘Old folklore’ it is not, but real folklore it is.

It’s very rare that you would see a moon that’s actually blue in color. This photo was created using special filters. Most Blue Moons you hear about are Blue in name only. Image via our friend Jv Noriega.

What most call a Blue Moon isn’t blue in color. It’s only Blue in name. This great moon photo is from EarthSky Facebook friend Rebecca Lacey in Cambridge, Idaho.

Bottom line: Modern folklore has defined two different kinds of Blue Moons. The last Blue Moon – second full moon of a calendar month – came on October 31, 2020. The other sort of Blue Moon – third of four full moons in a single season, with a season being between a solstice and equinox – will come on August 22, 2021.


Moon phases 2021: This year's moon cycles

Some nights when we look up at the moon, it is full and bright sometimes it is just a sliver of silvery light. These changes in appearance are the phases of the moon. As the moon orbits Earth, it cycles through eight distinct phases. The four primary phases of the moon occur about a week apart.

Lunar calendar for 2021

Here are the moon phases for 2021, according to NASA's SKYCAL. Times and dates are in UTC time.

New MoonFirst QuarterFull MoonLast Quarter
Jan 6, 9:37 a.m.
Jan 13, 5:00 a.m.Jan 20 9:02 p.m.Jan 28, 7:16 p.m.Feb 4, 5:37 p.m.
Feb 11, 7:06 p.m.Feb 19, 6:47 p.m. Feb 27, 8:17Mar 6, 1:30 a.m.
Mar 13, 10:21 a.m.Mar 21, 2:40 p.m.Mar 28, 6:48 p.m.Apr 4, 10:02 a.m.
Apr 12, 2:31 a.m.Apr 20, 6:59 a.m.Apr 27, 3:31 a.m.May 3, 7:50 p.m.
May 11, 7:00 p.m.May 19, 7:13 p.m.May 26, 11:14 a.m.Jun 2, 7:24 a.m.
Jun 10, 10:53 a.m.Jun 18, 3:54 a.m.Jun 24, 6:40 p.m.Jul 1, 9:11 p.m.
Jul 10, 1:16 a.m.Jul 17, 10:11 a.m.Jul 24, 2:37 a.m.Jul 31, 1:16 p.m.
Aug 8, 1:50 p.m.Aug 15, 3:20 p.m.Aug 22, 12:02 p.m.Aug 30, 7:13 a.m.
Sep 7, 12:52 a.m.Sep 13, 8:39 p.m.Sep 20, 11:55 p.m.Sep 29, 1:57 a.m.
Oct 6, 11:05 a.m.Oct 13, 3:25 a.m.Oct 20, 2:57 p.m.Oct 28, 8:05 p.m.
Nov 4, 9:15 p.m.Nov 11, 1246 p.m.Nov 19, 8:58 a.m.Nov 27, 12:28 p.m.
Dec 4, 7:43 a.m.Dec 11, 1:36 a.m.Dec 19, 4:36 a.m.Dec 27, 2:24 a.m.

Phases of the moon

The moon, like Earth, is a sphere, and it is always half-illuminated by the sun. As the moon travels around Earth, we see more or less of the illuminated half. Moon phases describe how much of the moon's disk is illuminated from our perspective.

New moon: The moon is between Earth and the sun, and the side of the moon facing toward us receives no direct sunlight it is lit only by dim sunlight reflected from Earth.

Waxing crescent: As the moon moves around Earth, the side we can see gradually becomes more illuminated by direct sunlight.

First quarter: The moon is 90 degrees away from the sun in the sky and is half-illuminated from our point of view. We call it "first quarter" because the moon has traveled about a quarter of the way around Earth since the new moon.

Waxing gibbous: The area of illumination continues to increase. More than half of the moon's face appears to be getting sunlight.

Full moon: The moon is 180 degrees away from the sun and is as close as it can be to being fully illuminated by the sun from our perspective. The sun, Earth and the moon are aligned, but because the moon&rsquos orbit is not exactly in the same plane as Earth&rsquos orbit around the sun, they rarely form a perfect line. When they do, we have a lunar eclipse as Earth's shadow crosses the moon's face.

Waning gibbous: More than half of the moon's face appears to be getting sunlight, but the amount is decreasing.

Last quarter: The moon has moved another quarter of the way around Earth, to the third quarter position. The sun's light is now shining on the other half of the visible face of the moon.

Waning crescent: Less than half of the moon's face appears to be getting sunlight, and the amount is decreasing.

Finally, the moon is back to its new moon starting position. Now, the moon is between Earth and the sun. Usually the moon passes above or below the sun from our vantage point, but occasionally it passes right in front of the sun, and we get a solar eclipse.


How Moon Phases Affect Plant Growth

Though the practice is as old as agriculture itself, planting by the Moon is a complex art. Here’s a look at how Moon phases are believed to affect plant growth:

Over the course of a 29½ –day lunar cycle, the Moon goes through four basic phases, new, full, and two quarter phases—first and last. For half of its cycle, between the new and full phases, the Moon is waxing (growing in illumination). Then, after the full Moon, it begins to wane (decreasing in illumination).

Aboveground Crops

All aboveground crops should be planted when the Moon is waxing. During the new Moon is the best time to sow or transplant leafy annuals such as lettuce, spinach, cabbage, and celery, while the first quarter phase is good for fruits and foods with external seeds.

Below-Ground (Root) Crops

Root crops do best when the Moon is waning. When the Moon is just past full, it’s a good time to plant root crops like potatoes, beets, and turnips, and fruit trees. During the last quarter phase, it’s best to avoid planting at all. Work instead on improving soil, weeding, mulching, composting, etc.

But knowing the phase of the Moon isn’t enough. Planting by the Moon also requires knowledge of the Moon’s place in the zodiac, based on ancient lore that each sign confers certain growing conditions.

For instance, water and earth signs—Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces, Taurus, and Capricorn—are said to bring moist, fertile conditions, whereas most air and fire signs—Gemini, Aquarius, Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius—are said to be barren. There are some exceptions to that rule, though. The earth sign Virgo is barren, and the air sign Libra is said to be a relatively fertile sign.

Some signs are also believed to benefit specific types of plants. For example, Taurus is said to favor leafy greens, while corn does best under the influence of Libra.

Can’t keep track of all these variables? Not to worry. The Farmers’ Almanac has got you covered! Our Gardening by the Moon Calendar has it all figured out for you. Just consult this handy guide before you take your trowel to the soil.


Egyptian Astronomy – Astronomy for the Pharaohs:

The sundial in the Pharaonic civilization:

The ancient Egyptians used several types of sundial depending on the measure of shade caused by sunlight to the pole or the thread fixed in front of it. In addition to using the column facing the sunlight and measuring its length, the Egyptians used two other types of simple tools, such as the wooden or ivory ruler with a vertical edge and a vertical thread, where the names of the hours were engraved on the ruler in the direction of the opposite relationship.

In charge of rotating waterwheel machines, and determining a time for opening dams in the fields. It required the use of a long ruler to measure the long shadows drawn in the morning and evening. Therefore, the Egyptians built it in such a way that the shadow is drawn on a curved surface, which shortens the necessary length completely. In both cases, the clock lacked accuracy.

Water Clock – Clipseder:

Egyptian blogs show that this clock was used around 1580 BC, but its design came from the thirteenth century BC (1417 BC) and was used to measure time at night.

The water clock consists of a vase decorated on the outside with images of stars, constellations and hieroglyphic writings, some of which say (each picture in its hour … in order to determine the hours of the night when the constellations or orders are not visible thus, it is possible to determine the correct hour for sacrifice at all times).

The inner surface of the container contained the following phrase (for each month there is a vertical row of twelve signs, each of which indicates an hour of the twelve hours of the night in that month) and this phrase took into account the different hours of the night and the hours of the day in summer and winter.

This vessel was equipped with a whistling hole at the bottom allowing the flow of liquid gradually. The vessel was inserted from inside it according to a regular and constant rate of water descent every hour. But this device was not accurate, so they invented the cylindrical deviated shape to avoid errors, but it was not sufficient to equate the decrease in pressure leading to a decrease and diminution of the exit … “We touch here the hand touching the palaces of the Egyptian flag.

Drawing an accurate water clock was not available except after complex calculations that Egyptian mathematicians were not able to, so the skewed cylindrical shape adopted after touching will certainly not correct some of the fixed error, but the result is approximate. At the end of their reign, the Egyptians tried to prevent the deficiency by using a cylindrical clipsider based on the principle of fullness.

The water gradually falls into it and there are lines indicating the watch gradually as the level rises. By means of a tank that is always full, this device has become more accurate than a watch based on the flow of water. But we do not know if this was true.

Egyptian Astronomy – The Merkhet to observe the stars and determine the hour at night:

It is a dual device consisting of:

  1. The branch of a date palm is split in its widest part. The incision is placed next to the eye and viewed towards the lead thread (plumb).
  2. The plumb, which is held by an assistant, sits near the observer who holds the marquee (the date branch). This plumb is made of a horizontal ruler that the lead thread is looped onto so that the machine thread matches a mark in the wood.

The two observers sit opposite each other according to a north-south direction. The hours are determined when some planets cross a vertical thread, passing through the heart, the right or left eye, or in other parts of the viewer’s body. Whereas the planets are arranged around it, and the texts determine the position of the planets relative to the body of the auxiliary. Example: The second hour, the star Petef above the heart. The third hour, the star Ary above the left eye.

Ancient Egyptian calendars:

The Egyptian calendar originated in the beginning from deep mythological origins. Egyptian mythology mentioned that the god Thoth invented all the sciences and brought them down to earth where he ruled for three thousand years. The personality of the god Thoth was mixed with the Sumerian personality of Hermes.

The myths mentioned that Thoth had placed the oldest books of knowledge, which numbered about 36,000 books, and that the Egyptian Hellenistic historian Maniton narrated that among these books was related to astronomy and calendar, and that he divided the day into ten hours, each hour one hundred minutes, and every minute a hundred seconds. According to Egyptian mythology, Thoth was the first teacher of humanity and he was the inventor of writing.

This information explains that the mathematical system in the calendar was a decimal system and was not a hexadecimal system. But the myths are what told us that there is an implicit sexagesimal system within the decimal system because the Egyptian calendar science divided the six (12) months and each month into (20) days and distributed the (360) days into three equal seasons as we will see, and this means that it combines the decimal system Al-Sastini, which is what happened with the Babylonian astronomical system as well.

Astronomy for the Pharaohs – Lunar Calendar:

The oldest time system in Egypt was the lunar time, which was supervised by the god Osiris (not Thoth) with his 28 guards. There was a name for each of the lunar months, but there was a name for each day in the 28-day lunar month, and it seems that the lunar calendar It had two phases, early (leap) and late (Dutit).

The first fourteen days, which are the days of the moon’s growth from the crescent to the full moon, had fourteen deities who take care of each day, as well as the fourteen days of the moon’s decay, the second from the full moon to the crescent. They are shown in this figure.

Egyptian Astronomy – The seasons of the year among the Pharaohs:

  1. The month of the flood (sister) the emergence of water on the earth, which is the flood of the Nile that starts from mid-July to mid-November, and the word sister means horizon, where water appears on the horizon, seeds are sown, and the sun appears on the horizon. This chapter includes four Egyptian months, namely (Thoth, Baobi, Athor, Koyak).
  2. The month of winter (Burt), meaning the transplantation of the land It is the season of germination and fall of rain, and it starts from mid-November to mid-March, and includes four Egyptian months (Blessed, Mukher, Famont, Farmootty).
  3. The month of summer (Shimo), meaning shortage of water It is the season of the fires, and it starts from mid-March until mid-July, during which the plants are ripened and harvested, and the land is affected by a lack of water and drought, and it is also called the season of harvesting or harvesting of crops, and it includes four Egyptian months, which are (Bakhons, Bawani, Abib, Masra or Masorari) ).
  4. Al-Nasa’i days.

Egyptian Astronomy – the palm of the calendar:

The ancient Egyptians were aware of the seasons and months of the year through the right palm of the right palm, where the upper phalanges of the four fingers were the season of the flood (sister) consisting of four months, reaching its climax in the third month (Aqur).

The middle phalanges of the four fingers represent winter (Burt).

The phalanges of the summer (Choto). –

As for the fifth finger (the thumb), it is for the miserable days of a nasee.

And Egyptian farmers still use this method to know the seasons and months of the year

The palm of the fortune and astrology (five and five):

The Egyptians used the palm of the right palm also to reveal the horoscope and to know the sign to which the person belongs, where the birth hour is placed on the pinkie, the birth day is written on the ring finger, the month of birth is written in the middle, the lunar day of birth is written on the fourth finger, the year is written in the thumb, and back to tables Horoscopes It is possible through this information to know the sign from which the person descended from, so he can read his fortune from it.

And this method is still common among Egyptian farmers in what is known as (five and khamisa).

Drawing the hands in the Pharaonic civilization:

There was a solar calendar parallel to the lunar calendar and corresponding to it, and it was in two phases as well. The following are the names of the months in the lunar and solar calendar in their formats. Early and late, taken and translated from Richard Parker’s Book of Calendars in Ancient Egypt.

There are the five days of Nassa that fall outside the calendar and are called (Bi Koji Anavot), which are the days of the birth of the five gods (Osiris, Set, Isis, Nephthys, Horus), and they did not pay attention to the extra quarter of the day in each year, so when the calendar was fixed in the era of Ptolemy, a day was added The sixth of the days of the women every four years was called (the day of Thoth) “As for the beginning of the year, the star of Sirius Al-Yamaniya (SRIUS) was called by the Egyptians SEPEDET.

As for the quarter of the day that should have been added to the 365 days of the year, it continued to accumulate until it began to confuse the Egyptian calendar, since after 120 years had passed since the coincidence of the astronomical year with the beginning of a civil year, the civil year preceded the astronomical year by a whole month and it was necessary 1456 years pass until the civil year coincides with the astronomical year again. This period, which lasts for 1456 years, has been called (the Sothic era) after the star of Sothis, whom we call the star of Cyrus or Egyptian Spide.

This weakness in the Egyptian calendar indicates a defect in the sciences of astronomy and timing (chronology), which forced them to take more than one calendar in an attempt to control their time.

The beginning of the Egyptian New Year was called the day (the appearance of the lady), which was considered the first day of the first month is the month of the flood, and they should always adhere to that so that the difference that it causes to them does not appear again a quarter of the day, but they were counting 365 days and starting the year from New, whether or not Sotis appeared, so summer was falling during the winter, according to the calendar.

Egyptian Astronomy – Astronomy for the Pharaohs:

Thus, the Egyptians prevailed over the civil calendar over the stellar calendar (despite the accuracy of the latter), but they also used the religious calendar that was based on the movement of the moon and used to determine the dates of religious holidays. The religious calendar stipulated that every 25 Egyptian years must be divided into (309) lunar months. Or (9125) days were distributed among groups of lunar months, each ranging between 29 and 30 days, and the periodic repetition of this very simple method corresponds to the facts, and the lunar year, which contains (13) feasts, is called (the least lunar year.

In sum, we say that the Pharaonic year begins on the eleventh day of the month of September (9/11, which is a famous day in our contemporary calendar where terrorism struck the twin towers of commerce in America). We are now in the year 2014 AD and it corresponds to 6255 Pharaohs, which seems to be It began four thousand years before the Gregorian calendar (and this is a hypothesis that we have reservations on). The Egyptian year begins with (9/11) of each year and ends on 9/16 of next year. The Egyptians used to call New Year’s Day (the day of the rivers: Ni – Yara), which is the date for the completion of the Nile flood.

And this name may have changed later to Nayrouz, which represents the beginning of the new agricultural New Year, and we do not know to what extent the relationship between the Persian Nawruz festival, which is the beginning of the Persian New Year on this day, although there is evidence that the Persian festival of Nowruz was taken from the Babylonian Akitu festival. Which was called (the new day) and the Persians translated it into their language and became (Nowruz) which means the new day.

For the Egyptians, the day was estimated from midnight to the next midnight, which is currently in force, and the day was divided into 12 hours a day, which the sun god crossed from the eastern horizon to the western horizon, and the night was also divided into 12 hours in which the sun god deceived his horror in The lower (other) world delegates difficulties and wars and wins over them until it shines again.

Egyptian Astronomy – The Egyptian time system (time metrology):

The calendar of the Egyptian year belonged to what is known as the (asterisk), which does not depend on the sun or the moon, but on the star of Sirius, as it announces the beginning of the year if this star is seen before sunrise on 9/11, which was located at the time of the Nile flood, where it begins The three seasons of the year separate the floods, and each season contains four months. But the difference of a quarter of a day in a year caused them great confusion in the calendar, so they used a year every 1460 years, and it would have been better for them if they increased a day every four years as the Babylonians did. And the Copts took their calendar from the ancient Egyptians and went in the same dilemmas.

The historian Seneca mentioned that the priests of Ain Shams were the first to discover that the beginning of the flood coincides with the rising of the star of Sirius or (Sirius Al Yamania), which they called (Lady Sothis) in the temple of On (Temple of the Sun) once a year, so they took it as the beginning of the poetic solar year, and that they They took advantage of their knowledge of this astronomical phenomenon to delude people that the Nile does not overflow with its goodness until after God accepts their prayers and sets the date for the flood and announces it to the people.

The priests of the Temple of On during the Third Dynasty corrected the Nilotic year by adding five days, which are the days in which the five gods (Osiris, Isis, Seth, Nephthys, and Horus) were born. Thus, starting from the year 2800 BC, the Nilotic Six became 365 days, and some historians attributed that calendar to Amhotep al-Hakim and the engineer of King Djoser, so they named each of the twelve months the name of a god, an idol or a religious occasion, as they called the first of each month, In that new calendar, the name of the god Thoth (the god of knowledge) who revealed to them that calendar whose cycle the astronomical gods oversee.

In the table below the exact division of the ancient Egyptian months with its solar system and their names in hieroglyphs (in parentheses) and Coptic, denying the equivalent of the timing of our current calendar, the god of each month and its connotations and the plants that appear in that month, and the current popular Egyptian proverbs inherited from the past for each month And which is traded by the Egyptian peasants to this day:

Egyptian Astronomy – Coptic and Pharaonic Calendar:

Astronomy for the Pharaohs – General (Coptic and Pharaonic) calendar table:

It must be known that the Egyptians did not know the seven days of the week whose source was Sumerian, then Babylonian, then the Greeks took them and introduced them to Egypt in the Hellenistic era, for they used to divide the month into three parts, each of which includes ten days, and we cannot call it a week in Arabic. We call it metaphorically (tithe) and do not have specific names for it, and thus they are similar to the Chinese, Japanese and Koreans in the past (and the French later in their calendar after the Republic).

Ptolemy’s reforms to the Egyptian calendar:

In the year 238 BC, Ptolemy the Third introduced important reforms to the Egyptian calendar due to its difference with the Greek calendar, and he introduced these reforms in a decree called the Decree of Canopus, and the most important thing in these reforms was what concerned the quarter of the day, where a day was added (bad Every four years. But the Egyptian priests refused to implement these reforms.

In the year 25 BC, the Roman Emperor Augustus actually applied this idea, and the Copts took this amendment and made their calendar according to which the thirteenth month consisted of five bad days and increased to six days in leap years. That is, the Coptic New Year in leap years begins with 9/12, not 9/11

The Coptic New Year was mistakenly called (the festival of Nowruz) which was consecrated by the Arab conquerors when they combined it on the occasion of the Persian New Year, and the name between Pharaonic and Persian passed and was consecrated.

The Copts began this calendar on 11/11/284 AD, which was the beginning of the reign of the Roman Emperor Diocletian (who persecuted Christians), and it was called the Feast of the Martyrs. That is, 282 AD = 1 Coptic = 4525 Tot (Pharaonic).

Egyptian Astronomy – The Five Car Planets (Ekhmu and Wardage):

The five planets are planets in motion and clearly visible in the night sky, which were observed by the Egyptians, and they linked their movement with some atmospheric atmospheres, linked some minerals to them, and indicated their spiritual and intellectual significance.

The planets in the solar system called them “the stars that never tire, the moving stars” (Akhmo and Rus) and in some references they called them “Akhmu and Ras”, and the names of these planets are arranged according to their proximity to the sun:

I hope that the article on astronomy of the Pharaohs & Egyptian Astronomy will be obtained and to learn about the secrets of the Pharaonic civilization through the site.

Written by: Tamer Ahmed Abdel Fattah, Egypt

Researcher in the history of Egyptian civilization – online tourist e-marketer


There are several myths and misconceptions about the Moon, its apparent brightness, and phases.

For instance, the concept of moonlight is nothing but sunlight reflecting off the Moon's surface.

The Moon simply reflects the light of the Sun, and its bright part is experiencing daytime, just like any other planet of the Solar System.

Why? Because The Moon doesn't produce or emit its own light. The Sun is actually the only source of light in the solar system.

So, why does the Moon change shape throughout the month?

The Moon completes an orbit - or revolution - around the Earth in 27.32 days, in a way similar to the way the Earth goes around the Sun in 365 days.

As a result, the Moon sometimes finds itself hidden, partially hidden, partially lit, or fully lit up by the Sun, depending on whether it is blocked or not by the planet we live in.

The Lunar Cycle

The lunar cycle takes 29.53 days - nearly a month - to complete, which allows us to see it changing and morphing from new moon to new moon.

Interestingly and not coincidentally, the words "moon" and "month" come from the same root.

So, it's our perspective of the Moon's sunlit appearance that changes as it orbits Earth.

But there are more interesting facts about the lunar cycle.

Everyone on planet Earth sees the same phases of the Moon.

The only difference is that those who live south of the equator see the Moon "upside down" with the reverse side lit when comparing to those located north of the equator.

Also, although the same side of the Moon is facing toward the Earth throughout the month, the Moon has no side that is constantly dark.

That is to say, there's no perpetual dark side of the moon.

Last but least, during new moons and full moons, the Earth gets more extreme high and low tides due to the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.

The Moon Phases

The Moon is not only visible at night. We often see it during the day.

The only phases that cannot be seen in the day are the new moon and the full moon.

From an astronomical perspective, the lunar cycle has four main phases and four intermediate phases.

Let's take an in-depth look at each one of the Moon phases in order:

1. The New Moon

The cycle of the lunar phases begins with the New Moon.

At New Moon, the Moon appears to us on Earth completely dark and unilluminated because its unlit side is facing our planet.

According to modern astronomy, the new moon occurs when the Sun and the Moon are at the same geocentric ecliptic longitude.

In other words, the Moon is perfectly lined up between the Earth and the Sun.

As a result, the part of the Moon that is facing us appears dark and in shadow because we only see the side that is not being lit by the Sun.

The new moon is the only moment in the lunar cycle when we can witness a solar eclipse, and it is the only time the Moon is between the Sun and the Earth.

2. The Waxing Crescent Moon

Once the Moon moved along in its orbit, we begin to observe its dayside.

The result is a thin slice of light resembling a nail. It's the waxing crescent, i.e., a growing crescent.

At this stage, the Moon appears to be less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight, even though a fraction of its disk is increasingly lit by the Sun.

It can be seen toward the southwest in the early evening.

As the Moon starts to move eastward away from the Sun, we begin to witness more of its sunlit side each night.

As the days go by, the crescent moon grows fatter and fatter in the western evening sky.

3. The First Quarter Moon

As it grows thicker, the Moon reaches a new phase in the lunar cycle.

The first quarter, commonly called half moon, appears to us as if half of the Moon is illuminated.

Nevertheless, the Moon is still between one-quarter and halfway through its cycle.

It is visible up high in the southern sky in the early evening.

The reason why it is called first quarter moon is that it is one-quarter of the way through the lunar month.

4. The Waxing Gibbous Moon

As days give way to nights, the Moon reaches another stage - the waxing gibbous.

Gibbous means "humped" or "swollen." By now, the Moon appears to be more than 50 percent but not exactly fully illuminated by direct sunlight.

Nevertheless, the moon's disk is already well lit up by sunlight.

It is visible to the southeast in the early evening, up for most of the night.

At this point in the lunar cycle, the moon continues to wax and grow fatter, illuminated by the Sun's rays.

5. The Full Moon

The full moon occurs when the Moon is completely illuminated by direct sunlight.

At this point, the satellite's lit-up side is symmetrically facing the Earth - visually speaking, it's the opposite effect of the new moon.

We can witness it rise almost exactly at sunset and high in the sky around midnight.

The full moon stays visible all night and sets as the Surf rises in the next morning day.

One half of the lunar month has been completed.

6. The Waning Gibbous Moon

The full moon marks the beginning of the reverse process and the start of the second half of the lunar month.

At the waning gibbous, the Moon is no longer fully illuminated by direct sunlight, and its disk appears to be one-half lit up.

The Moon is growing thinner each night.

It can be observed rising after sunset, up high in the sky after midnight, and visible to the southwest after sunrise.

7. The Third Quarter Moon

The third quarter moon reveals one side of the Moon's disc illuminated and the other side in darkness.

It's a mirror of the first quarter phase and can be witnessed around midnight and then to the south after sunrise.

At this stage, three-quarters of the lunar month has been completed.

8. The Waning Crescent Moon

The waning crescent moon is the last phase of the lunar cycle.

At this point, the Moon is barely illuminated by the Sun, and only a fraction is lit up by direct sunlight.

It can be seen low to the east before sunrise.

The journey has been completed, and a new moon is about to hide under the darkness of the night skies.

Phases of the Moon: Moonrise and Moonset Times

Do you want to know at what time the moonrise and moonset take place?

The following table features approximate moonrise and moonset times.

It does not include the necessary corrections that should be applied to daylight saving time (DST), time zone, season of the year, atmospheric refraction, shape of the horizon, and other relevant variables.

New Moon
6 am | 6 pm

Waxing Crescent
9 am | 9 pm

First Quarter
12 pm | 12 am

Waxing Gibbous
3 pm | 3 am

Full Moon
6 pm | 6 am

Waning Gibbous
9 pm | 9 am

Third Quarter
12 am | 12 pm

Waning Crescent
3 am | 3 pm

Moon Phase Calculator

The Moon is at an average distance of 238,855 miles (384,400 kilometers) from the Earth.

And when it comes to the lunar cycle, it's our view of the Moon that changes.

The Moon has a night side and a day side, just like the Earth.

The terminator, also known as the twilight zone, is the moving dividing line between night and day.

Do you want to know today's moon phase? Check the current Moon Phase Calculator:


Full Pink Supermoon Coming April 26th

April’s full Moon will occur on Monday, April 26, 2021, at 11:32 PM ET, and is known as the Full Pink Moon. It is also the first of two Supermoons this year!

Video Transcript:

Known for its showers and ever warming temperatures, April is also known as a month when spring flowers begin to appear.

Herb, moss pink, or wild ground phlox, is one of the earliest widespread flowers of the spring. As the name infers, the flowers are pink in color, thus the name for April’s full moon.

The Pink Moon has also been called the Full Sprouting Grass Moon, because the new grass begins to come up at this time. Some coastal tribes refer to it as the Full Fish Moon. Because this was the time that the salmon swam upstream to spawn.

If April’s full moon falls before Easter, it is also known as the Paschal Full Moon or Egg Moon.

For more full moon lore and astronomy, visit us at FarmersAlmanac.com.

Farmers' Almanac Staff

This article was published by the staff at Farmers' Almanac. Interested in becoming a guest author? Contact us to let us know!

Keep Exploring

I definitely intend to go out this evening to view our “Pink” moon. I wasn’t aware of this in the past (and I’m a senior!). Thank you for posting this interesting article. Since I’m in the Midwest, I’ll go out about 10:20 p.m. so I don’t miss it.

It was quite beautiful! You’ll be able to enjoy it for the next couple of days!

When can we have blood in the feet in march

I have been a firm believer of Moon rising & settings that give the best results & I am just now, needing a reminder of those, for when to trim my hair for best rapid growth. Plus, the best time to color my hair for a longer hold in time? I know I followed this decades ago. Any suggestions? Vel B

Hi Vel, you’ve come to the right place! The Farmers’ Almanac takes all that guesswork out for you, and our Best Days charts have all that info for you in one spot. We’ll also email you this link: https://www.farmersalmanac.com/calendar/best-days

RIP Prince. Maybe he will settle for a pink full moon instead of purple.

I hope all of your plants grow in abundance.

Lmbo.. listening to these comments ..
Today’s my Birthday. .I love a full moon.

After reading through some comments, I would say the effects of the full moon are apparent.

Yes, the full moon does seem to cause ‘full moon fever’–but beyond that, isn’t it just the coolest thing to watch it rise above the pines?

The only thing that any full moon does as far as I am concerned is to keep me awake. Solution, block the moon light.

Work with the public, full moon definitely affects people.

I think a full moon follows Rhonda wherever she goes.

Back in 1978, the builders were digging my basement on a Full Moon Eclipse – my basement ended up 2 feet deeper than it was supposed to be. That was fine and I
think helped to sell it years later. Coincidence? Who knows? Ha Ha

The Crazy moon , full moon, Bad things happen on the night of the full moon .

I believe when the moon is full , that is when the crazy people come out , Stay in your house, Safe from harm !

You must mean, as the name implies. Not infers. Thanks!

our body is 98 percent water of course that is what happens every body knows this

Lol.. everybody knows this huh? You might want to double check your percentages then.. because if your body is 98% water… you’d probably be dead.

The correct info there is between 58 and 70 percent depending on hydration level. Less than 50 and you’ll die of dehydration, more than 74 and you’ll die from dilution of electrolytes

I worked in a mental hospital with direct care of the patients for 15 years. It was long held, and I’ve seen it firsthand, the effects of the full moon on patient’s behavior. Considering we are mainly made of water, it’s little wonder how the moon can have this effect. Arthritis acts up, police see an increase in crime-I saw bad behavior on my end. Tis true.
By the way, Rhonda- the book in the Bible is Revelation–no “s”. Get over the temptation on getting on that spacecraft-then again, go ahead.

Very true..that the full moon does have effect on everything. I also remember one time, a police officer told me.. that more violence was committed during the full moon. Then any other time of the month.

Rhonda, I truly believe that we are not the only beings in the universe that is just too arrogant to believe.And I believe in God I read the Bible.But girl, stay out of the L RON HUBBARD FANTASIES.
Things are changing yes,weather, peoples behavior,we are more stressed yes all that seems to point to things as we know it coming to an end, and yes I firmly believe the moon has its influence on us her, just as it has on ebb and tide, but hidden space ships?,inner earth? Come on now.
Elvira

I like cheese! From the moon! Mmmm!cheese!

I used to work for an OB-GYN office and there were 50% more babies born the day/night before or the day/night of a full moon than any other day of the month. Crazy!

It is true more babies are born during a full moon. My daughter in law did not realize why she was having to go in to Surgery so much during her three days on call until I told her. More accidents , more shooting, killings, and crimes are committed during the full moon than at any other time. Boy, when I told her this, she asked me to write down the three days before and the 3 days after. She never took call again on the 3 days prior and tried not to take it on the night of the full moon or the 3 days after. Check with your police dept. and the ER at the hospital, the law enforcement knows this also. Try getting you a scanner and see what you hear these 7 days and compare to the 7 days during the other moons and you will see for yourself. More accidents and heart attacks happen on Mondays, also.


June solstice full moon in 2016

Watch for a full-looking moon on the eve of the June solstice (June 19, 2016) and a full moon on the solstice itself (June 20). From what we’ve been able to gather (sources below), this is the first full moon to fall on the June solstice since the year 1967, which some recall as the year of the Summer of Love, a social phenomenon centered on San Francisco, London and other places around the globe. There’ve been a number of near misses of full moons on June solstices, however. And we are indeed talking about the June solstice, not solstices in general. In fact, there was a full moon eclipse on the December solstice in 2010.

Reliably, the phases of the moon recur on or near the same calendar dates every 19 years. It’s the “or near” that causes the full moon to miss the solstice on that 19th year, sometimes. Nineteen years from this year’s solstice – on June 20, 2035 – the full moon will not fall on the same date as the June solstice. It’ll be another near miss, with the full moon falling on June 20, 2035, and the solstice arriving one day later.

It appears as if the full moon and June solstice won’t fall on the same calendar date again until June 21, 2062.

Be aware that, as we’re figuring all this, we’re using Universal Time (UT or its variant UTC), what used to be called Greenwich Mean Time. Universal Time is the favorite of astronomers because it applies to Earth as a whole. What if we used other time zones? Well, for instance, if we use U.S. time zones, the last full moon and the June solstice actually coincided on June 21, 1986.

On June 20, 2016, the moon turns full at 11:02 UTC. The solstice arrives some 11.5 hours later, at 22:34 UTC.

Rising nearly full moon – near San Francisco, California – on June 19, 2016 via EarthSky Facebook friend Amy Van Artsdalen.

There’s something else special about this full moon, in addition to its falling on the solstice. It marks the fourth of four full moons in between the March 2016 equinox and the June 2016 solstice. Usually, there are only three full moons in one season (between an equinox and solstice, or vice versa), but sometimes there are four.

The third of four full moons to take place in a single season has its claim to fame: it’s sometimes called a seasonal Blue Moon (in contrast to a Blue Moon by the definition of second full moon in a calendar month). The most recent Blue Moon by the seasonal definition occurred on May 21, 2016, or one lunar month before this solstice full moon.

Okay so … seven times in 19 calendar years, a season has four full moons. And in cycles of 19 years, the moon phases fall on or near the same calendar dates.

It should be no surprise that – sure enough, 19 years from now – we’ll have four full moons in between the March 2035 equinox and June 2035 solstice, and the full moon on May 22, 2035, will count as the third of four full moons in one season – a seasonal Blue Moon.

Want to know more about the seven seasonal Blue Moons in the next 19-year cycle? Click here.

Have a happy solstice full moon, y’all! Photo is the 2015 June full moon at Hartman Rocks, Gunnison, Colorado by Matt Burt. Thanks, Matt!

The last time a full moon fell on a solstice generally was in 2010 – the December solstice of December 21, 2010, when the full moon staged an exceedingly rare December solstice total lunar eclipse. There is amazingly accurate Gregoriana eclipse cycle of 372 years, featuring the recurrences of eclipses with the seasons, as defined by solstices and equinoxes.

We find a total lunar eclipse last happening on the December solstice 372 years ago, on December 21, 1638. Looking 372 years ahead of 2010, to the year 2382, we find a December solstice partial lunar eclipse on December 21, 2382. And 19 years after that, in 2401, there’s a December solstice total lunar eclipse on December 21, 2401.

Sources for the story above:

Bottom line: Solstice and full moon both fall on June 20, 2016, for the first time since 1967, aka the Summer of Love.


Astronomy

Astronomy is a broad discipline covering all facets of astrophysics. In this section you can learn about the origins of the universe, black holes and other astronomical phenomena.

How to Find Orion's Belt in the Night Sky

Astronomers Tell You How and Where to Best View Meteor Showers

The Hitomi Satellite Briefly Glimpsed the Universe, Then Died — What Happened?

We're Now One Step Closer to a Gravitational Wave Space Observatory

Anti-asteroid Space 'Sentinel' Could Soon Patrol the Planetary Skies

6 Red-Hot Facts About the Red Giant Star Arcturus

Twinkle, Twinkle: The Ultimate Stars Quiz

7 Eye-catching Facts About the Bright Star Vega

How Many Moons Does Saturn Have?

What's the Order of the Planets in the Solar System?

Search for Dark Matter Boosted by Quantum Tech

A Portion of Your Suntan Comes From Distant Galaxies

Why Are Magnetars So Scary?

We've Just Solved Some Mysteries of Saturn's Icy Moon Enceladus

New Solar Orbiter Will Get the First Glimpse of the Sun's Poles

Learn More

In recent years, Saturn has overtaken Jupiter as the planet with the most moons in our solar system. How many does it have and could it have even more?

You know Saturn and Venus and Mars and . some others. Can you put the eight planets of the solar system in the correct order? There are several ways to do this.

Scientists at Yale are using "quantum squeezing" to reduce "noise" in their search for dark matter.

Surely you've watched tons of sunsets in your lifetime. But have you ever seen the sunset and the moonrise simultaneously? Is that even possible?

Arcturus is 113 times brighter than our sun, even though it's only a little bigger. What else should we know about this red giant?

Everyone's heard of the blue moon and the harvest moon, but did you know every full moon of the year has a name? What are the names and when do the moons occur?

Stars are giant nuclear fusion reactors and we wouldn't exist without them. Find out how much you know about these twinkling lights with our quiz.

Whether it's a solar eclipse, a meteor shower or the launch of the long-awaited James Webb Space Telescope, 2021 has a lot to offer.

All of the planets in the solar system are named for Greek gods, except Earth. So where did the name come from?

The Quadrantids are a short but powerful meteor shower that shows up in early January. How can you glimpse it?

A magnetar is a neutron star with a super-strong magnetic field. Astronomers consider them among the scariest objects in the universe, but why?

You might call it a Christmas miracle. Jupiter and Saturn will align so closely they may look like a double planet. The last time we saw this was in 1226.

Late November is the perfect time to look for Orion's Belt. If you're new to stargazing, we'll show you how to find it.

The annual Leonid meteor shower is back, and peaks in the early-morning hours of November 17. It's made up of tiny bits of debris from the comet Tempel-Tuttle. Here's how to see it.

Even if you've never looked through a telescope, you've probably seen Vega, one of the brightest stars in our galaxy. In fact, thousands of years ago, Vega was our North Pole star, and will be again in the future.

Every autumn, Earth passes through a stream of debris left by Halley's comet, resulting in nighttime meteor showers in mid-October. The best time this year is Oct. 21.

Star-gazers gasped when they saw how much Betelgeuse dimmed in 2019 and the reason wasn't clear. Even though it's back up to full strength, how long will it be before it explodes? We haven't seen a supernova in over 400 years.

It's a celestial gift in the middle of August. Just look up for a spectacular sight.

Comet NEOWISE comes by only once every 6,800 years. But it will be visible to anyone with binoculars or even to the naked eye. Here's how to spot this rare event.


The Origin of Israel

Under God’s call, Abram (later called Abraham) migrated from the city of Ur sometime between 1900 and 1750 BC to God’s appointed land, Canaan (today’s Israel). Abraham’s wife Sarah bore him a son, Isaac, and Isaac’s wife Rebecca bore Jacob. History shows that God had a special task for Jacob and his descendants and He later changed Jacob’s name to ‘Israel’ (Gen 32.28). The etymology of the name Israel is not clear, although Gen 32.28 implies that Jacob and his descendants would struggle but prevail. The history of Israel confirms this thought Jacob’s descendants, the twelve tribes of Israel (the Hebrew Israelites) have suffered but prevailed for 3,000 years.

The descendants of Abraham formed a nation (Israel) around 1300 BC after their Exodus from Egypt to Canaan under the leadership of Moses, and in 1004 BC King David established Jerusalem as the capital of the Kingdom of Israel.

NO! In the light of Israeli anti-discrimination law and Israel’s right to self-determination as a Jewish State, the accusation of ‘racist’ against Israel is unjustified. All Israeli citizens are granted full civil and voting rights. And just as a Palestinian state would maintain a demographic balance in favour of Palestinians, so the Jewish state of Israel maintains a demographic balance in favour of Jews by controlling immigration.

There is a legal distinction between defensive wars and wars of aggression. The facts show that Israel’s role in Arab-Israeli conflicts has always been defensive in response to Arab aggression. In response to major Arab attacks (1948-49, 1967, 1973), or incessant rocket attacks from Gaza, Israel has exercised her right of self-defense under UN Charter Article 51.

NO! Whilst western nations led by the US and the UN favour the two-state approach, it is NOT the solution favored by the Palestinian Authority, Hamas or the Palestinian people! They aim for a single state – a Palestinian state.

NO: The terms ‘Jerusalem’ and ‘Zion’ do not even appear in the Qur’an, and Mohammad never visited Jerusalem in person. Muslims see Mecca as the holiest place in the Islamic world, and so turn their back on the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem when praying

NO! All of Jerusalem was mandated to be part of the Jewish homeland under the 1922 League of Nations ‘Mandate for Palestine’ and so Israel’s sovereignty over all of Jerusalem is well-founded. Jerusalem was first divided through the 1948-49 Arab invasion of Israel, but at no time was East Jerusalem under legal ownership by an Arab entity. In any event, the division (the ‘green line’) was intended to be temporary.

Evidence from the Tanach (the Hebrew Bible), the New Testament, historians like Josephus, and archaeology all testify to the existence of a huge, impressive Temple in Jerusalem

YES: THE CLAIM IS LEGAL ON TWO ACCOUNTS
According to international law, Israel has a well-founded claim to sovereignty over Jerusalem, including its Old City. Also in international law, it is a sovereign state’s right to determine its own capital, and Israel proclaimed Jerusalem to be her capital shortly after the declaration of the State of Israel in 1948.

NO: The Palestinian refugee problem was created by a sudden invasion of five Arab armies in response to the declaration of the State of Israel in May 1948. Arab governments rejected Israel’s offer to repatriate 100,000 Arab refugees, and the offer of UN money for the refugees.

Israel is abiding by the 1995 Oslo II Accord and supplying agreed water quantities. It is up to the Palestinians to maintain water networks, utilize wastewater, improve existing supplies and drill new wells. Instead, water is often used as a political weapon, and so authorized wells are not dug and leaks are not repaired.

THEY ASSUME THERE IS A ‘PALESTINIAN LAND’
According to international law, Israel is NOT occupying Palestinian land since the West Bank and Gaza Strip were not under any sovereignty prior to the Six Day War. All of western Palestine, from the Jordan to the Mediterranean remains legally open to Jewish settlement under the 1922 British Mandate for Palestine and Article 80 of the UN Charter.

THE FALLACY
There never was “a Palestinian people” or “a Palestinian Arab nation”. League of Nations documents of the 1920’s refer to the local Arab population as ‘existing non-Jewish communities’. Palestinian nationalism only emerged in the mid-twentieth century, partly in response to the emergence of Zionism.

YES! Archaeology and historical documents show that Jews have lived in Israel for over 3000 years! For example, they verify God’s plan for the Jewish Temple, the existence of King David, and the existence of Jewish synagogues in the Holy Land up to the Muslim conquest in 638 AD.


Watch the video: Moon Phases Demonstration (August 2022).