# On the consistency of different well-polished astronomy software

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I have purchased a custom wedding band from a seller that claims the ring will show the constellations visible at the horizon on a specific date at a certain date and time.

However, I have fired up Stellarium and set it up to look at a specific example shown in the product page - and I cannot find any set of parameters which looks like it: Jupiter's not in the right place, some constellations are under the horizon (Virgo, Libra, Leo), some others very high in the sky (Andromeda, Perseus)… Although it's the first time I use Stellarium, I don't see how I could make a mistake:

• Location set to London Bridge (even the preset London to be sure)
• Date and time set just like in the example (double-checked 5 times)
• Cylindrical projection (tried all of them though), offset -30%
• FoV 210° (to have the 360° mapped to the entire screen - I have
absolutely no idea why 180° does not work)
• Elevation lines horizontal (although I tried moving around to align everything like in the pictures for every projection method - in vain)

Here is the example:

Am I missing something, or is their sky map wrong? If yes, is it possible that two pieces of well-polished software like Stellarium and this one (looks just as good as Stellarium) have different star locations? How come (isn't there a standard star almanach?)?

If you set the date to 2018-04-06, Stellarium shows the Moon and planets in positions matching the example image. Any good planetarium software should produce a similar result.

Most likely the vendor cut and pasted two screenshots (note the seam) for April 2018, overlaid "January 1973," and hoped customers would not check. Perhaps you could ask them to send you an image for approval before printing the ring.

Stellarium is known to be accurate. Star and planet positions in 1973 are very well known, and correctly shown in Stellarium.

At that time and place, Cetus and Taurus are rising in the East and North East, where Saturn is just about to rise. Lynx is on the horizon in the North. The Horizon. Bootes is about to set in the West. The sun in low on the horizon in Saggitarius in the SW. Microscopum and Sculptor are in the S and SE respectively. Jupiter is very close to the sun in Saggitarus. The moon is close to new, also in Saggitarus. Venus is also nearby in Ophiuchus. Of course the sun is up and so the stars would not have been visible at this time.

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## Purchase regrets?

Neaptide, I'll encourage you, not on a particular mount, but to put your money in a mount of quality that you can grow with. It really is not possible in this hobby to over mount, but very easy to under mount your OTA. The mount is every bit as critical to happy observing as the OTA. I believe you made a wise decision given your impressions of the mount, for you.

### #78 tchandler

Not really - although a SW 12" collapsable DOB came close. Over the past several years I have been able to observe with many fine telescopes and witness first hand some truly exceptional phenomena that are not even within the realm of perception of most other people. How could I regret that?

### #79 infamousnation

20mm gso plossl, it slipped by qc, had bad bad astigmatism too close to the center of view

celestron zoom, im not even sure how this is a thing

But if i could go back in time i guess i would buy a 4 inch tak in highschool.

Edited by infamousnation, 08 June 2017 - 01:31 PM.

### #80 skybsd

Hello everybody,

Gonna steal this one straight from our friends at Astronomy Forums but I wanted to know, given your experience, what equipment would you not have purchased if you could do it all over again? Can be anything from a Scope to just equipment. This can help to weed out stuff that's not needed so other members don't make the same mistakes. For me, I would say my original scope, a Meade 114mm EQ which was terrible and broke on me. Due to that I have not to this day bought from Meade again and I don't think I ever will. What about you guys?

Good to hear from you - nice post.

Taking your question as I read it - I'd say that for ME, its the first generation Baader Hyperion Click-Lock Zoom Eyepiece.

That thing (I simply refuse to call it an eyepiece!) was ABSOLUTELY AWFUL! Where do I start?

The simple act of unwrapping it revealed leaked black lubricant all over the thing - and my hands! Oh - and the smell - WOW!

I cleaned it best I could and I left it out to air hoping that the smell would dissipate, so I could it for a spin that night - Boy was I wrong.

The lubricant had continued to secrete out and it still stunk. I did what I could to tidy it up and tried to use it - Don't know what was worse, the smell, the inability to focus or that after a few minutes my fingers were covered in that muck again.

I gave up - walked into the house and tossed it in the garbage - got myself cleaned up and called it a night.

That was the moment I decided to NEVER buy another Baader eyepiece - EVER IN MY LIFE!

### #81 Oriondk

Buying a house with very, very limited view of the sky.

### #82 Gary Z

Purchasing my first scope, the Meade ETX 80. This purchase was made after researching considerably and it received many favoriable reviews. During the one year that this was under warranty, it was replaced times. Meade never gave me any issues with each replacement. Either the optics were bad or the motors were bad. However, I did get some enjoyment out of it. I still have the last one I received. I later purchased the Celestron 8 SE and from the very first time out, I was amazed how well it worked in comparison. Granted the price difference is considerable, but I had purchased the Meade as it was light weight for my back. When I got the Celestron SE Mount, I was amazed as to how portable it is. Seeing it in use at a star party sold me on it. I've been quite happy with Celestron and even purchased a used EVO 8 mount last year.

### #83 Umasscrew39

As time goes on, I am realizing my list of purchase regrets is growing .

- several filters (way over-rated for the value they provide)

- off-axis guider (never used it never needed it)

- other things I just can't remember off hand

Edited by Umasscrew39, 03 July 2017 - 10:12 AM.

### #84 REDSHIFT39

Skywatcher 150mm Mak-Cass,I always had thermal issues with it in my climate.It took longer to cool down than my 10 inch Dobsonian.It also had a dimmer image than my current 150mm reflector.I also regret buying all those cheap eyepieces,I should have not been so cheap and just buy the televue's from the start.

### #85 ForgottenMObject

Buying a house with very, very limited view of the sky.

I know that feeling on some level. While I only rent an apartment, the trees have overgrown everything over the years, and LED insecurity lights installed last year give the place the charm of a prison complex now. My sky is basically gone. The other half of it is although the place is old, I haven't had much of any real problems in the 15+ years I've been here, so I'd be hesitate to give that up and risk moving to some shady dump for a better sky. I *could* buy a small house, but prices are sky-high here in Maryland for what usually amounts to poorly maintained junk homes, and job security is non-existent anymore these days - I've already been through the "fun" of being out of work twice - so I hesitate to commit to any big purchases in a era where we're all seen as disposable.

So, it leaves me trapped in a loop: stay here without a decent night sky or risk other problems just to get the night sky back. risk buying a house with a night sky view, but then hoping that job security exists. There's no good answer, and it's all kind of dumb in a way. No wonder it's hard to get people into this hobby: on top of time, money, and skill in it, you need clear, dark skies.

Edited by ForgottenMObject, 04 July 2017 - 11:41 AM.

### #86 izar187

For me, bottom end priced wide field ep's.

Too few elements, or poorer finished glass, or lousy coatings. or some combination of.

Lots of time wasted too, comparing the views thru bottom end wide fielder's. Time just lost.

Between the bottom end, and the multi hundred dollar top tier, there are tons of well working ep's.

If on a budget, as the vast majority of us on the planet are.

Then simply save up for as many weeks longer as needed. However many weeks that may be.

Get to a telescope field and SEE what works in your focal ratio scope.

Along the way you may discover as I did, that Tele Vue makes some of the finest ox there are.

But there is no target in the heavens that can only be see in theirs.

But there are targets, right there in the fov, that were missed in bottom end wide field.

Trying to make a scope fit a car I owned. Lots more time wasted.

Get a good used vehicle that fits the scope you enjoy. Always.

### #87 Oriondk

Buying a house with very, very limited view of the sky.

I know that feeling on some level. While I only rent an apartment, the trees have overgrown everything over the years, and LED insecurity lights installed last year give the place the charm of a prison complex now. My sky is basically gone. The other half of it is although the place is old, I haven't had much of any real problems in the 15+ years I've been here, so I'd be hesitate to give that up and risk moving to some shady dump for a better sky. I *could* buy a small house, but prices are sky-high here in Maryland for what usually amounts to poorly maintained junk homes, and job security is non-existent anymore these days - I've already been through the "fun" of being out of work twice - so I hesitate to commit to any big purchases in a era where we're all seen as disposable.

So, it leaves me trapped in a loop: stay here without a decent night sky or risk other problems just to get the night sky back. risk buying a house with a night sky view, but then hoping that job security exists. There's no good answer, and it's all kind of dumb in a way. No wonder it's hard to get people into this hobby: on top of time, money, and skill in it, you need clear, dark skies.

I know what you mean about prices. If I wasn't married I'd find a small piece of land in the country and have a 400 sq. ft. Tiny house built, lol.

## Meade ETX-90AT UHTC

• topic starter

Ok this is my first post. I am in the process of trying to figure out a good telescope for my first ever purchase. I think I have decided on the Meade ETX-90AT UHTC from Vanns.

However if I can't get this one I am looking at the Meade ETX-70AT.

Basically I was hoping if you all could fill me in on the scope as to whether or not these to scopes will meet the needs of seeing nice, clear, colorful, shots of planets and deep space objects.

Like I said I am just getting started into astronomy and I want to by a telescope that will fit me for a life time of enjoyment.

Thanks for your help,
Bill

### #2 Guest_**DONOTDELETE**_*

• topic starter

I have an ETX-90RA (manual slow motion controls and no goto) and have been happy with it. An UHTC scope would be even better. However, the ETX-70 is a short achromatic refractor which will have quite a bit of chromatic aberation (violet fringes) around bright objects.
The one annoying thing about the ETX 90 is the poor finderscope. It is a straight through finder which is impossible to see through when aimed near the zenith.

I personally do not like the idea of goto, but other people may like it. I would rather find objects myself than have my telescope find them for me. (just my humble opinion)

The ETX-90 is a good choice for a beginner scope.
Welcome to Cloudy Nights!

### #3 Guest_**DONOTDELETE**_*

• topic starter

Thanks Ian,
Due to budget constraints I am only going to be able to purchase the ETX-70AT. I plan on purchasing a 2X Barlow lens and a wide view eyepiece as well.

I hope that it will be a good scope to learn on and give me a feel for the greater potential to becoming more than just a novice.

### #4 Guest_**DONOTDELETE**_*

• topic starter

### #5 Guest_**DONOTDELETE**_*

• topic starter

Or you could go with the non-UHTC version. I have it and it is not bad.

### #10 Guest_**DONOTDELETE**_*

• topic starter

Topcat,
I am confused then. I saw the Konus MotorMax 90 and it's magnification isn't any better than the Meade ETX-70AT. What I would really like is for someone to come out and say that Meade sucks you should buy another brand and here are the reasons why. Yet every review that I have read about the ETX-70AT says that the optics are above average for it's size and that it is wonderfully good scope for both beginners and intermediates. Plus it works very well as a spotting scope. Which is another appealing feature to me since I like to watch birds.

Since I am a newbie can someone break it down into simple sentences for me?

### #11 amirab

Well. It's certainly not about magnification but LIGHT GATHERING .
get the large aperture you can for your money (considering the optics is good)

### #12 Guest_**DONOTDELETE**_*

• topic starter

### #14 Guest_**DONOTDELETE**_*

• topic starter

Ok so how are the optics on the Konus MotorMax 90? I can't find any reviews on the scope and I am always apprehensive about buying something that no one comments on.

Unfortunately I have already purchased the ETX70-AT, but Vanns has a great return policy so if it doesn't fit the bill I will consider returning it and buying the Konus MotorMax 90 if I can get some hardened proof that it is a good scope. Although I have 2 year old son and I hope some day he will be interested in searching the skies with Dad.

So I may just hold onto the Meade pending it delivers as promised and when he is old enough spring for a larger scope so that both he and I can search using our on scopes together and compare.

Thoughts? By the way thanks for all of your inputs. I really appreciate it. I am finding out that this is another expensive hobby. My wife thinks I can't have a hobby unless it cost a small fortune. She maybe on to something.

### #16 Guest_**DONOTDELETE**_*

• topic starter

Thanks Topcat.
I was just rereading the reviews located on cloudy nights about the ETX60-AT & ETX70. They both make good compelling sources to establish a basis for buying the two scopes. I was a little disappointed with the review of the Orion StarMax 90, but it did perform well overall. I just want to make sure that I am getting the best bang for the buck since I am on a limited budget.

I bought the ETX-70AT from Vanns.com and I got the Meade 882 tripod, Meade 773 hard case, MA9 mm & MA25 mm lens, #494 Autostar Controller Included (cost $200's retail) all for$256.00 which included free shipping.

I haven't been able to find a better deal than that. Also I picked up a Meade 3X Barlow lens & 45 degree Prism from Amazon.com for another $100's. So my total package was just over$356's.

Call me nuts, but it seems to be the best deal going out there right now. Since I haven't the first clue about astronomy, the GO TO feature made the deal even more sweater to me, but if you all are confident that I can learn star locations rather quickly I may have to reconsider after I hear what you have to say about the Konus MotorMax 90 of course.

Thanks once again, The newbie,
Bill

### #17 Guest_**DONOTDELETE**_*

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### #18 Guest_**DONOTDELETE**_*

• topic starter

I plan on taking an Astronomy class next spring. I am finishing up with a BS degree in Computer Information Systems at High Point University. A local college. I have to take one science course. Either Biology of Astronomy. Astronomy has always been something I have been interested in. So I am excited to finally own a telescope. I have seen some really nice pictures taken from members on this forum with there scopes and maybe someday after I am well polished I will try some astrophotography my self.

## Using a computer / phone device on the field

But the point remains: PalmOS is very much an out-of-date OS.

I imagine you could say the same thing for XP or 2000.

But in any event, I find that Planetarium is still a very effective program and it seems to offer some features that are lacking in Android programs and in the iPhone apps I have tried.

Hopefully some day there will be a serious app for the Android OS but I am not holding my breath.

### #27 arpruss

Vendor: Omega Centauri Software

### #28 Jon Isaacs

Tell me about the Planetarium features that are important to you but lacking on iPhone and Android apps. It might inspire a developer (maybe even me). :-)

I am not interested in the iPhone and there are plenty of people working on iPhone apps and there are some pretty good ones out there. For the Android, the list is long, from what I see, there are no "serious" astronomy apps out there. Most phone apps seems to focus on the ability of the phone to use it's sensors to point the phone in the direction of the object, I don't care about this though obviously a developer would want to include it.

So, what does a good Android app look like:

To me it looks like Cartes du Ciel or The Sky on a handheld device. I use the Palm for about everything when I am observing, Planetarium does it all. If I want to know the phase of Venus on June 24th, 2017, it takes a few seconds.

- Large databases that are easily searched and filtered, including double stars. No typing for searching, I want a menu structure that allows me to "click with the Stylus" and quickly navigate.

- Easily customized screen settings, adjust labeling as desired. Because of the difficulty of selecting an individual object accurately with a finger, current programs seem to label everything, slowing everything down and cluttering up the screen so that it is unusable.

The ability to size the screen to an exact dimension, none of this pinching to zoom, if I want a 5degree field of view, I want a 5 degree FoV.

- Good information pages including rise and set times for a week. Time menu easily accessed so that looking at a month or a year in the future is easily done.

- The ability to show the distance between two successively selected objects, say how far is it from M6 to M7 (+03°48'42.9")

- No requirement to hook up to the web or 3G network, some apps seem to need this, the 3G access out there in the Valley of the Gods Utah is pretty weak.

I guess that is enough to start with.

### #29 psonice

Jon, I can do almost all of that with starmap pro:

- Decent catalogue (not sure of the details, but I seem to remember stars go to mag 16), easy to browse through (including doubles, yes, and easy to do with a finger or a stylus).

- You can customise the menu (not sure about names, it's clear enough anyway).

- Labels can be turned on and off for different objects.

- There are zoom buttons for when you don't want to pinch and zoom.

- There's no way I've seen to select a FOV, but selecting a FOV seems somewhat antiquated anyway. You just tell it what equipment you have, and switch between different scopes and EPs, it matches the FOV for you, including for CCDs if you tell it the sensor size.

- Not sure about rise + set times for the week, but there's an excellent 'tonight' screen that shows all the stuff visible in your equipment with rise + set times. There's also rise + set for every object, a graph of it's height in the sky over 24 hours, and a graph of altitude at midnight over a complete year.

- Distance between objects, maybe not. Never had a reason to look.

- No data connection required, except for photos (it can pull down lots of user-submitted photos for the objects, and if you submit your own it'll show yours within the actual sky view.

### #30 Astraforce Paul

Hey, folks, no one is arguing that an vintage Palm is equivalent to a modern iPhone or iPod Touch. Of course, it isn't. It can't surf the web, do wi-fi, make calls, automatically download podcasts, do Cover Flow, put the coffee on , etc. And no one is arguing that Palm OS 3 or 4 is a modern operating system! The OP's question had to do with options for using a device in the field at night without affecting one's vision, and the SONY Clie is absolutely a viable option for that.

Even though dated, the Palms and SONY Clies are still wonderful choices for astro observing--big time! Jon is 100% right about that. Anyone who says otherwise has been drinking too much hooch! For many uses, particularly star hopping, Planetarium is superior to any i-device app.

### #31 Astraforce Paul

Planetarium Features

arpruss, you asked about Planetarium's features. Here's my top 10 list--and you'll find few of them in any of the i-device astro apps. I rely on them in almost every observing session.

1. The ability to set differing star magnitudes for different fields of view, so that your screen matches what's in the eyepiece--and what you see in the sky. This is invaluable for star hopping. Most of the i-apps give you control over stellar mags for one fov, but then the app takes over and messes things up gloriously (far too faint a limit--or too bright) for other fovs. It's great knowing that with Planetarium, the stars in the wide horizon, constellation, finder, and eyepiece fields of view will always match what you see.

2. Tap on a menu and select an exact field of view--and get it automatically. Pinch-zooming is all well and good, but it gets tiresome and is terribly inefficient and imprecise. (And doesn't work that well in cold climates with gloves on! )

3. Tap on two objects consecutively and their angular separation shows up. Useful for all sorts of reasons--star hopping, etc. Just used it this morning for the Venus-Jupiter-Mercury-Mars conjunction.

4. Turning particular object catalogs on and off. Many advantages, but a big one is that it lets you show the objects you are interested in--e.g., all the Messiers and 100 Best NGC (or Herschel 400 or whatever).

5. #4 gives the observer control over the showing of DSOs in a large, horizon or constellation-sized fov as well as a small fov. The current crop of astro apps set this automatically and either ends up showing you too many DSOs or too few (Astromist may be an exception it's one of the few I haven't tried).

Even better would be to combine catalog on/off options with controls for DSO magnitudes. Most i-device astro apps lack controls for DSO catalogs & magnitudes--or you can set the magnitude universally or for only one fov. That doesn't work because ideally you'd want to show open star clusters to, say, mag 7, globular clusters to mag 9, galaxies to mag 11, nebula to mag X, etc. and not have the app override all that and show clusters and galaxies to mag 17 when looking at a small fov. Users should have control.

6. 10 minute and custom time steps. Only being given a choice of a minute or an hour, as some leading apps do, doesn't cut it. 10 minutes, 1/2 hour, or whatever the user wants, work better.

7. A single tap to turn constellation lines on and off.

8. One tap access to changing the orientation of the fov.

9. Two tap access to Jupiter's moons.

10. Additional, uploadable, even user-created, catalogs of objects.

This Cloudy Nights thread has more details of how Planetarium does its magic.

### #32 arpruss

Vendor: Omega Centauri Software

arpruss, you asked about Planetarium's features. Here's my top 10 list--and you'll find few of them in any of the i-device astro apps. I rely on them in almost every observing session.

1. The ability to set differing star magnitudes for different fields of view, so that your screen matches what's in the eyepiece--and what you see in the sky. This is invaluable for star hopping. Most of the i-apps give you control over stellar mags for one fov, but then the app takes over and messes things up gloriously (far too faint a limit--or too bright) for other fovs. It's great knowing that with Planetarium, the stars in the wide horizon, constellation, finder, and eyepiece fields of view will always match what you see.

By the way, 2sky for PalmOS also does this, too (and it's free now).

One limitation of this model is that one may want different magnitudes for different scopes and different finders and even different observing locations, and to handle that one would need profiles, and that gets into a mess. Another limitation is that for star-hopping one may sometimes want to zoom out (say, to whatever magnification the finder view has) while keeping the same magnitude limit as in the eyepiece view.

Wouldn't it be better just to have the software keep track of apertures (and maybe other details like sky conditions), so you can quickly switch between, say, 7mm (naked eye), 68mm (finder) and 333mm (scope) views, and then have the software calculate with a good model what you should be able to see at each zoom level with that aperture, with some global user adjustment?

You could also have a default zoom level for each aperture.

2. Tap on a menu and select an exact field of view--and get it automatically.

I can see how that would be handy. (On the other hand, in AstroInfo, zoom is always by a factor of two, and I find that that is a nice balance between getting the FOV I want, and being able to accurately move between FOVs with a few presses of the up/down keys.)

3. Tap on two objects consecutively and their angular separation shows up. Useful for all sorts of reasons--star hopping, etc. Just used it this morning for the Venus-Jupiter-Mercury-Mars conjunction.

Yeah, that's a nice feature. One thing that I assume good PalmOS developers got right is minimizing the number of taps for a common task.

In 2sky, you can do it but it needs three taps to get to the distance (you need to close info screen for the first object, which screen you got when you tapped it). I may add this feature to AstroInfo--seems handy. (AstroInfo has a measure mode where you can draw lines between points on the screen and it measures them. That's not so accurate.)

10. Additional, uploadable, even user-created, catalogs of objects.

## Styjun

When using the Proficiency Dice optional rule, how should they be used in determining a character's Spell Save DC?

What percentage of campground outlets are GFCI or RCD protected?

Can attackers change the public key of certificate during the SSL handshake

Can I enter a rental property without giving notice if I'm afraid a tenant may be hurt?

Can the Cauchy product of divergent series with itself be convergent?

Can a Hogwarts student refuse the Sorting Hat's decision?

Does a humanoid possessed by a ghost register as undead to a paladin's Divine Sense?

On the consistency of different well-polished astronomy software

How do I show and not tell a backstory?

Need reasons why a satellite network would not work

Why does capacitance not depend on the material of the plates?

How do people drown while wearing a life jacket?

Why should I "believe in" weak solutions to PDEs?

How to get Logging using oidc-client with Angular

oidc-client-js and basic authenticationoidc-client js failing in Safari / FFSilent refresh not working with OIDC-client in Angular 5oidc-client-js is not getting claims correctly from Identity Server 4How to determine identity token expiration in oidc-clientAngular2 oidc-client not clear the cookies for mvc application when i logoff from angular2 appoidc-client authentication failure: sub from user info endpoint does not match sub in access_tokenIdentity Server 4 - Check iframe session issue - oidc clientoidc-client-js re-authentication for sensitive dataUsing oidc-client-js in chrome extension

I am using oidc-client with angular 7, and I want to enable logging. The doc suggests that I can do the following

I have not been able to make this work as Oidc does not appear to be on the window object??

Did you find the answer? I'm facing the same issue.

I am using oidc-client with angular 7, and I want to enable logging. The doc suggests that I can do the following

I have not been able to make this work as Oidc does not appear to be on the window object??

Did you find the answer? I'm facing the same issue.

I am using oidc-client with angular 7, and I want to enable logging. The doc suggests that I can do the following

I have not been able to make this work as Oidc does not appear to be on the window object??

I am using oidc-client with angular 7, and I want to enable logging. The doc suggests that I can do the following

I have not been able to make this work as Oidc does not appear to be on the window object??

## Projects under the Observatory Control System

The Observatory Control System software provides for request and observation management, observation scheduling, and a science archive. An observatory that adopts this software has the option to use all of the parts, or only a subset of them. Specifically, the projects that make up the software are:

### Observation Portal

This Django application is the main interface that astronomers interact with to submit observation requests and to monitor the status of those requests. It also stores the observing schedule that is generated from all observation requests by the scheduler. It is fully backed by APIs and includes modules for the following:

Proposal management Calls for proposals, proposal creation, and time allocation Request management Observation request validation, submission, and cancellation, and views providing ancillary information about them Observation management Store and provide the telescope schedule, update observations, and update observation requests on observation update User identity management Provides Oauth2 authenticated user management that can be used in other applications

### Configuration Database

This Django application stores observatory configuration in a database and provides an API to get that configuration, which is needed by the observation portal to perform automatic validation and to calculate estimated request durations. It includes details on the configuration of sites, enclosures, telescopes, instruments, and cameras. The camera configuration has customizable sets of modes and optical path elements to support a wide range of current and future instrument configurations. The configuration is also used by the scheduler to determine available telescopes.

### Downtime Database

This Django application stores periods of scheduled telescope downtime in a database and provides an API to retrieve those periods of downtime. Scheduled downtimes occur for a variety of reasons including maintenance and education use. Downtimes are used in the validation of requests in the observation portal and are also used by the scheduler to block out time that is not available.

### Scheduler

This Python application creates telescope observing schedules. It gets a set of observation requests from the observation portal, computes a schedule, and then saves a set of scheduled observations back to the observation portal. It currently uses the GUROBI solver to solve for the schedule but will provide the option to use an open source solver instead.

### Rise-Set Library

This Python library wraps the FORTRAN library SLALIB. It performs visibility calculations for requested targets in both the observation portal and the scheduler. It supports sidereal and non-sidereal target types and includes airmass, moon distance, and zenith constraints on visibility.

### Science Archive

This Django application provides an API to save and retrieve science data. Certain metadata are stored in a database for easy querying and full image data are stored in AWS s3 for download.

### Ingester Library

This Python library aids in uploading data to the science archive.

## Preparing High Quality, Accessible Figures

We recommend that authors familiarize themselves with best practices for the creation and accessibility of scientific visualizations. Resources, including “Ten Simple Rules for Better Figures,” should be consulted to improve the impact and readability of your figures. Specifically, we call out Rougier et al.’s Rule 5: Do Not Trust the Defaults, and strongly encourage you to check the color defaults used by your preferred visualization software. Tools such as Color Oracle should be utilized to check your figures for accessibility before submission correcting your figures may be achieved by adopting color maps such as viridis, e.g., the default colormap in matplotlib 2.0 default, which is also available for R via CRAN, or cube-helix (Green 2011), which is available in some astronomy software tools such as AIPS or Aladin. The public domain R statistical and graphical software environment has flexible color options with 657 color names and palettes based on the Color Brewer, Hue-Saturation-Value and Hue-Chroma-Luminance systems. See R guidelines here (PDF) and here (PDF). Use of unsaturated colors is recommended when symbols overlap in crowded diagrams this requires the PDF rather than EPS formats.

When we prepare the published version of your manuscript we may rearrange or resize the figures, so it is helpful if you can ensure that each figure or subfigure is in a separate file. If a figure is part of a lettered, multipart figure, place the letter within the box around the figure, not outside of it. If the letter cannot be placed within the box, lettered tags can be typeset. Page numbers, figure numbers, file information, etc., should not be included in figure files.

If you feel that figures in the published article must be sized or arranged in a certain way, please include a

file which describes your requirements the Production Editor may contact you about this when the manuscript is accepted. Note that extra charges will be incurred if you decide to make alterations to figures at proof stage.

Additional guidelines and tools include:

Fonts, lines, symbols Try to use only common fonts, such as Times, Helvetica, or Symbol, in figures. Spelling and use of numbers and units in figures should conform to usage in the body of the text and figure legends. A minimum of 6 pt. font size is acceptable. There should be consistency of appearance between the size of symbols and the size of type within a figure, and between the weight of the lines and the weight of type within the figures. Lines in figures should be at minimum 0.5 points, and if you use dotted or dashed lines you should check that the different sorts of lines are distinguishable when the figure is small. More on Color Accessibility The use of color as the only distinguishing delimiter in a figure should be generally avoided. Colored lines should also use different line styles colored symbols should be varied in shape, colored histograms use different hatching or weights. These types of choices greatly enhance the usability of a figure for a low-vision or color-blind reader or for a reader who can only utilize the resulting manuscript in greyscale. AASTeX Specific Advice Instructions for structuring and placing figures using AASTeX are available. Users of AASTeX 6.3+ will find a new LaTeX command interactive for tagging animated and interactive figures directly in their LaTeX files. Finding figures from AAS Journals articles: We have centralized all the figures in articles from all AAS Journals since

1997 on our Astronomy Image Explorer (AIE) tool. The figures from your final article are posted at the AIE at publication sans embargo. They are provided in high resolution JPG, PDF, and PPT formats. As a result the NASA ADS has integrated these graphics into their article landing pages (e.g., Mao et al. 2015) and link back to the AIE for each regular figure.

## Create a mosaic of the Moon

András Papp won the Our Moon category in the Insight Investment Astronomy Photographer of the Year 2015 competition. Here's how he did it.

This competition is now closed

Published: September 9, 2019 at 8:41 pm

W hen creating high-resolution lunar mosaics you need to plan your imaging session. It takes a long time to capture the required number of AVI movie files, so the position of the Moon in the sky changes significantly. Taking into account the field of view of your camera and the ability of your telescope, it’s always a good idea to capture more panes with greater overlap rather than miss one part of the Moon.

More on this is available in our guide on how to photograph the Moon.

Our starting AVI movie files were captured through a 5-inch telescope with a DMK 41 CCD camera.

For the panes of the sunlit side of the Moon’s disc you should ideally take thousands of frames, but hundreds of frames are enough for panes of the darker portion along the terminator.

For pre-processing, we’re going to use IRIS, a small but powerful freeware program.

Click File > AVI Conversion to open a dialog box and select the AVI movie file you would like to process, then load it into the program.

Next, you need to do a quality analysis and grade the single frames in a decreasing order. Use the Best Of and Select commands for this activity.

Once done, select Processing > Planetary Registration (1) from the top navigation menu.

In this menu, you can align the frames to the sharpest one. The next step is to stack the aligned frames by using the Add_Norm command. At this point, only the sharpening is missing.

Here a Van-Cittert deconvolution can be a useful technique. To apply that, use the Van-Cittert command.

You need to define two values in order to run it. The first value is the FWHM radius of the stacked image, the second value is the number of iterations.

The values of the Van-Cittert deconvolution are dependent on the sky conditions, therefore each time you apply it you need to find the best combination.

Save your work by using the Save TIFF command this will create a 16-bi t TIFF image in your working directory, which can be loaded in many programs for post-processing.

Process all of the panes with this same workflow for consistency.

You can use Photoshop to stitch the pre-processed panes together. First create a high-resolution base image with a black background.

Define its size based upon the scale of your captured panes. It is practical to start the stitching along the terminator where the most detail lies.

Open the first pre-processed pane, copy it as a new layer to the base image. Load another pane which is directly next to the previously opened one, and paste it to the same place as a new layer.

If you adjust the top layer blending mode to Difference, you can easily align the two panes by using the move tool. Once done, set the blending mode back to Normal.

Then create a mask on the top layer by clicking Layer > Layer Mask > Reveal All. On this mask, paint a gentle transition on the overlap area with the brush tool.

Edit the brightness and contrast as necessary using Levels or Curves, both of which can be found by first clicking Image > Adjustments.

Follow this stitching process until the daylight portion of the Moon’s disc is completed, then click Layer > Flatten Image.

Now centre a different file and using the same process, stitch together the dark side as well.

You’ll end up with two files, one of the night portion and one of the daylight portion of the lunar disc.

Copy the two halves into the same image but on different layers. The night portion needs to be the lowest layer.

Adjust the brightness of the dark side with Levels or Curves until you get a natural view of the Moon.

Now, hover your mouse over the sunlit side layer and generate a layer mask as described above.

Finally, use brush tool to create the silky transition on the layer mask along the terminator.

When you are happy with your result, click Layer > Flatten Image to merge the two layers.

This article originally appeared in the August 2016 issue of BBC Sky at Night Magazine. András Papp won the Our Moon category of 2015’s Insight Astronomy Photographer of the Year competition with this image.