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Euclid, also known as "the father of geometry," was a Greek mathematician and geometer who lived in Alexandria between 325 and 265 B.C. where he founded a school of mathematical studies.
His legacy includes his famous treatise on geometry, entitled "The Elements", one of the most important scientific works in the world. In this work all the knowledge imparted in his academic center was collected.
"The elements" of Euclid presents a set of axioms, which he called postulates. It's about the five Euclid postulates, which are the following:
1. At two different points just cross a straight line.
2. A segment can be extended in an unlimited line.
3. A circle can be drawn from a central point and any radius.
4. All right angles are equal.
5. If a line cuts to two others forming interior angles on one side, provided that their sum is less than that of two right angles; those two lines will be cut on that side.
However, Euclid's theories are an abstraction of reality, since it assumes, for example, that a line is only a set of points that have no width, only length. Also, according to these postulates a surface has no thickness or height, so it only has two dimensions: width and length.
Likewise, Euclid's geometry was a fundamental point in other fields of knowledge such as physics, chemistry or astronomy. Thus, inspired by the harmony of Euclid's presentation, the Ptolemaic theory of the Universe was formulated in the second century, according to which the Earth is the center of the Universe. On the other hand, the Sun, the Moon and the planets revolve around them forming perfect circumferences.
However, "The Elements" of Euclid tried to summarize all the mathematical knowledge of the time, and was studied for several centuries. And it is that this work has more than a thousand editions since it was published in print for the first time in the year 1482.
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