# Why are three year old eclipse glasses not recommended?

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NASA's eclipse safety page says that eclipse glasses should:

Not be used if they are older than three years, or have scratched or wrinkled lenses

Why shouldn't three year old glasses be used? Is it because the coating somehow degrades with time? Were standards changed three years ago such that the older glasses can no longer be recommended? Is there just a stronger concern for scratches or damage over the years? Will eclipse glasses (or other solar filters) purchased today be unsafe three years from now?

According to the American Astronomical Society (AAS), the warning that eclipse glasses should not be used if they are more than 3 years old is outdated (provided that they are compliant with the ISO 12312-2 standard).

A page on their web site says the following:

Note: If your eclipse glasses or viewers are compliant with the ISO 12312-2 safety standard, you may look at the uneclipsed or partially eclipsed Sun through them for as long as you wish. Furthermore, if the filters aren't scratched, punctured, or torn, you may reuse them indefinitely. Some glasses/viewers are printed with warnings stating that you shouldn't look through them for more than 3 minutes at a time and that you should discard them if they are more than 3 years old. Such warnings are outdated and do not apply to eclipse viewers compliant with the ISO 12312-2 standard adopted in 2015.

## Why are three year old eclipse glasses not recommended? - Astronomy

Families the nation over will be sharing August 21st with their children watching the Solar Eclipse take place. Proper protection for the eyes, especially for little ones who cannot do so for themselves, is essential. The following information has been shared by NASA Education, and various astronomy educators for parents and children alike, and put together here for Peaceful Parenting audiences.

Looking directly at the sun is always unsafe except during the brief total phase of a solar eclipse (totality) if you are in this particular path -- when the moon entirely blocks the sun’s bright face. This minute (or two) of totality will happen only within this narrow path. In all other areas, having solar glasses during the entire eclipse viewing is necessary.

The only safe way to look directly at the uneclipsed, or partially eclipsed, sun is through special-purpose solar filters, such as 'eclipse glasses' or hand-held solar viewers. Homemade filters or ordinary sunglasses, even those with very dark lenses, are not safe for looking at the sun - they transmit thousands of times too much sunlight.

Refer to the American Astronomical Society (AAS) Reputable Vendors of Solar Filters & Viewers page for a list of manufacturers and authorized dealers of eclipse glasses and handheld solar viewers verified to be compliant with the ISO 12312-2 international safety standard for such products. One quick way to tell if the cardboard glasses you may be able to pick up at your local store, library, or museum are reputable is to look for the ISO stamp on the inside of the glasses.

Approximately half of all libraries in the United States (in each state) have solar glasses that they are giving away for free, so check with your local library if you do not yet have a pair. The following retail chains have all been carrying solar glasses for a few dollars per pair:

Similarly, do not look at the sun through a camera, a telescope, binoculars, or any other optical device while using your eclipse glasses or hand-held solar viewer — the concentrated solar rays will damage the filter and enter your eye(s), causing injury.

Seek expert advice from an astronomer before using a solar filter with a camera, a telescope, binoculars, or any other optical device. Note that solar filters must be attached to the front of any telescope, binoculars, camera lens, or other optics.

If you are within the path of totality, remove your solar filter only when the moon completely covers the sun’s bright face and it suddenly gets quite dark. Experience totality, then, as soon as the bright sun begins to reappear, replace your solar viewer to look at the remaining partial phases.

Outside the path of totality, you must always use a safe solar filter to view the sun directly. If you normally wear eyeglasses, keep them on. Put your eclipse glasses on over them, or hold your handheld viewer in front of them. Note: If your eclipse glasses or viewers are compliant with the ISO 12312-2 safety standard, you may look at the uneclipsed or partially eclipsed sun through them for as long as you wish. Furthermore, if the filters aren't scratched, punctured, or torn, you may reuse them indefinitely.

Some glasses/viewers are printed with warnings stating that you shouldn't look through them for more than 3 minutes at a time, and that you should discard them if they are more than 3 years old. Such warnings are outdated and do not apply to eclipse viewers compliant with the ISO 12312-2 standard adopted in 2015.

An alternative method for safe viewing of the partially eclipsed sun is pinhole projection. For example, cross the outstretched, slightly open fingers of one hand over the outstretched, slightly open fingers of the other, creating a waffle pattern. With your back to the sun, look at your hands’ shadow on the ground. The little spaces between your fingers will project a grid of small images on the ground, showing the sun as a crescent during the partial phases of the eclipse. Or just look at the shadow of a leafy tree during the partial eclipse you'll see the ground dappled with crescent suns projected by the tiny spaces between the leaves.

A solar eclipse is one of nature’s grandest spectacles. By following these simple rules, you can safely enjoy the view and be rewarded with memories to last a lifetime.

Optical Projection
(inexpensive options for viewing the eclipse):

Read more about Terry Richardson, senior instructor of astronomy and physics at the College of Charleston, who has made sure everyone can afford to safely view the eclipse: http://today.cofc.edu/2017/06/13/solar-eclipse-viewer-diy/

Live video streaming of the 2017 Solar Eclipse: https://www.nasa.gov/eclipselive

For viewing through cameras, telescopes, or binoculars, using a solar filter sheet is one less expensive way to outfit your gadgets for safe viewing.

## News & Events from the IfA

Friends of the IfA on

#### May 14, 2021: Award-winning science TV show features UH astronomer, local students

The award-winning television show, Xploration Awesome Planet will feature IfA education and outreach specialis, J.D. Armstrong and his students on Saturday, May 15, at 2:30 p.m. on KHON. The Earth science series, which airs on FOX channels nationwide, will showcase Armstrong and three of his students who are part of our HI-STAR mentorship program.

#### April 27, 2021: Kalani senior's astronomy research proposal shines

The phrase "out-of-this-world" has taken on a whole new meaning for Ashley Kaya. The Kalani High School senior is interested in searching for signs of an Earth-like planet within Perseus, a constellation that looks like a hunter in the northern sky. Guided by mentors at the IfA, Kaya's ambitious proposal captured the attention of Maunakea Scholars, an innovative program designed to award local students observing time on world-class telescopes.

#### April 22, 2021: Award winning student inspired by IfA's 'passion for astronomy'

Fourteen-year-old Anica Ancheta is off to a running start in her pursuit to study the complex cosmos. Guided by the IfA, Ancheta's research on active galactic nuclei (AGN) earned her four exemplary awards at the 2021 Maui County District Science and Engineering Fair.

#### April 21, 2021: A novel optical physics method to measure the expansion of the universe

A team of researchers from the University of Michigan and the UH Institute of Astronomy are suggesting a new way to use quasars to measure the expansion of the universe directly. They propose a method called intensity correlation speckles to measure the difference between the redshift - in which light stretches as it travels through an expanding universe, causing its wavelength to elongate - in two paths of light from the same quasar.

#### April 19, 2021: UH astronomers to help map first galaxies in the universe

IfA astronomers will play an instrumwntal role in helping unveil the universe's very first galaxies, more than 13 billion light years away. On Monday, April 19, NASA announced the first suite of science programs for its groundbreaking James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), set to launch in October 2021. The IfA researchers are part of the "COSMOS-Webb" project, which will be the largest guest observer program in JWST's first year of operation.

#### April 15, 2021: Simons shares vision for future as astronomy institute director

The incoming director of the IfA, Doug Simons has a set of priorities that he calls the "three pillars" - ramping up research, expanding technology development and retaining IfA's world-class education. Simons' appointment as the leader of one of the world's premier astronomy programs became official at the Board of Regents April 15 meeting.

#### April 12, 2021: Doug Simons named new director for UH Institute for Astronomy

Veteran Hawaiʻi Island astronomer Doug Simons has been selected as the next director of the IfA, effective September 1, 2021. Simons has worked on Maunakea since 1990 after he earned his PhD from IfA and has served as the Canada-France-Hawaiʻi Telescope executive director since 2012 and was the Gemini Observatory director from 2006-2011.

#### April 9, 2021: In memoriam: Chad Kālepa Baybayan

The University of Hawaiʻi community is mourning the loss of highly respected, deep-sea voyaging canoe Hōkūleʻa captain Chad Kālepa Baybayan, who served as a navigator-in-residence at the ʻImiloa Astronomy Center of Hawaiʻi.

#### March 17, 2021: Maunakea telescope playing vital role in tracking large asteroid flyby

An asteroid that is estimated to be as large as the Golden Gate Bridge will make a close pass by Earth on March 21 when it is about 1.25 million miles (2 million kilometers) away or about five times the distance of the Moon. Astronomers on Maunakea are using the opportunity to improve their tracking of hazardous objects that threaten the planet. The IfA-operated Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on the summit will be used to closely analyze the characteristics of asteroid 2001 FO32 as it passes Earth.

#### Feb. 10, 2021: 'Farfarout'! Solar system's most distant planetoid confirmed

A team, including Dave Tholen from the IfA, have confirmed a planetoid that is almost four times farther from the Sun than Pluto, making it the most distant object ever observed in our solar system. The planetoid, nicknamed "Farfarout," was first detected in 2018, and the team has now collected enough observations to pin down the orbit. The Minor Planet Center has now given it the official designation of 2018 AG37.

#### Jan. 12, 2021: UH graduate student discovers long-sought 'Old Faithful' active galaxy

The centers of galaxies with actively feeding supermassive black holes are already astounding environments. Now, a team of researchers led by a graduate student from the IfA has found an even more interesting oddball. Feeding black holes typically increase and decrease in brightness similar to the Kilauea volcano, becoming more or less active over time in unpredictable ways. However, the newly discovered black hole is more like Old Faithful geyser at Yellowstone National Park, erupting repeatedly at predictable times.

#### Jan. 11, 2021: A Rocky Planet Around One of Our Galaxy's Oldest Stars

Almost all of the planets discovered to date (including the solar system planets) are confined to the plane of the Milky Way, unable to glimpse such a sweeping vista of our galaxy. However, astronomers at the IfA, using the W. M. Keck Observatory on Maunakea, have discovered a rocky planet with a different kind of view.

#### Jan. 11, 2021: UH Astronomers Find Evidence for Planets Shrinking Over Billions of Years

A team of astronomers led by IfA graduate student Travis Berger has shown that an intriguing class of Neptune-sized planets shrinks over billions of years.

#### Nov. 23, 2020: Lunar companion 2nd minimoon discovered

Earth is orbited by thousands of artificial satellites, but only one large, natural Moon. Eight years ago, researchers at the IfA predicted that there must be a population of small, natural 'minimoons' that temporarily orbit Earth. On November 22, a team of 23 researchers from 14 academic institutions announced a study on the second minimoon ever discovered, dubbed 2020 CD3.

#### Nov. 16, 2020: Pan-STARRS detects 1960s-era rocket booster orbiting Sun

Earth has captured a tiny object from its orbit about the Sun and will keep it as a temporary satellite for a few months before it escapes. But the object is not an asteroid it's likely an upper stage booster rocket that helped lift NASA's ill-fated Surveyor 2 spacecraft toward the Moon in 1966. Our Pan-STARRS1 telescope atop Haleakalā spotted the object in September 2020.

#### Nov. 9, 2020: Maunakea Telescopes Confirm First Super-Planet Discovered by Radio Observations

A collaboration between the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope in Europe and two telescopes on the summit of Maunakea, the Gemini Observatory and the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF), has led to the first direct discovery of a cold brown dwarf from its radio emission. In addition to demonstrating a new way for future brown dwarf discoveries, this result is an important step towards applying radio astronomy to the exciting field of exoplanets.

#### Oct. 26, 2020: UFO spotted over Hawaiʻi likely spent rocket

Thousands were mesmerized by a mysterious flurry of lights that appeared to float above Hawaiʻi's evening sky on Saturday, October 24. Photos and videos of the string of lights flooded social media, leaving many to believe the sighting could be anything from a spaceship carrying extra terrestrials to a meteor shower. IfA astronomer Richard Wainscoat believes onlookers witnessed the reentry of a spent rocket booster used to launch Venezualan satellite, Venesat-1, back in 2008.

#### Oct. 26, 2020: Massive asteroid Apophis subject of new findings

IfA astronomer David Tholen and his team have revealed critical new findings linked to a large asteroid expected to pass extremely close to Earth. They announced the detection of Yarkovsky acceleration on the near-Earth asteroid Apophis. This acceleration arises from an extremely weak force on an object due to non-uniform thermal radiation. This force is particularly important for the asteroid Apophis, as it affects the probability of an Earth impact in 2068.

#### Oct. 20, 2020: Finalists for Institute for Astronomy director announced

Three finalists have been identified for the position of IfA director. The finalists are each scheduled for virtual visits over a three-day period with participants on the islands of Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi and Maui. The visits include: department discussions meetings with senior administrators, faculty, staff, students and internal and external constituents and a public presentation. The finalist are:
Laura Ferrarese, Principal Research Officer at Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Centre (and former Director, Gemini Observatory)
Kenneth Chambers, Astronomer and Director, Pan STARRS Observatory, IfA
Douglas Simons, Executive Director, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

#### Oct. 8, 2020: Astronomers produce largest 3D catalog of galaxies

A team of astronomers at the IfA has produced the world's largest three-dimensional astronomical imaging catalog of stars, galaxies and quasars. The team used data from the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) telescope on Haleakalā. IfA astronomers applied novel computational tools to the catalog, to decipher which of the 3 billion objects are stars, galaxies or quasars. For the galaxies, the software also derived estimates of their distances. The resulting 3D catalog is now available as a high-level science product through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.

#### Oct. 5, 2020: UH astronomers develop new mirror technology, grow green industry

Large reflecting mirrors lie at the heart of the world's most powerful telescopes that observe distant galaxies, stars and planets. A company formed by University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Institute for Astronomy (IfA) scientists and students through UH's innovation incubator has demonstrated a new way to shape thin mirror surfaces using high-power lasers.

#### Sept. 28, 2020: UH-built infrared upgrade to Maunakea telescope goes live

An innovative new instrument built by a team at the IfA, Caltech and W.M. Keck Observatory provides adaptive optics (AO) correction using objects invisible to the naked eye. The AO system includes an innovative infrared pyramid wavefront sensor that can detect exoplanets and young dwarf stars where planet formation commonly occurs.

#### Sept. 25, 2020: UH astronomers to construct 3D map of Milky Way galaxy

What does our own galaxy look like? It's hard to tell because we are inside. A new project, led by IfA astronomer Dan Huber, will change that. Huber and his team are planning to create the largest 3D map ever constructed of stars in the outer regions of the Milky Way, with a new grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF).

#### Sept. 21, 2020: Astronomy at UH plays key role in 30 years of NSF instrumentation funding

For more than three decades, technology development at the IfA has been a prime mover in federally funded astronomy programs, according to a study published in the Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems. The authors tracked the impact of National Science Foundation (NSF) grants for astronomy technology and instrumentation development over the last 30 years.

#### Sept. 11, 2020: IfA Alumnus Jeff Rich Appearing on Jeopardy!

IfA alumnus Jeff Rich has checked off a big bucket list item. Rich, who earned a PhD in astronomy in 2012 will appear on the season premiere of hit TV game show Jeopardy! on Monday, September 14

#### Sept. 2, 2020: UH Mānoa researchers predict location of novel candidate for mysterious dark energy

Astronomers have known for two decades that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, but the physics of this expansion remains a mystery. Now, a team of researchers at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa have made a novel prediction - the dark energy responsible for this accelerating growth comes from a vast sea of compact objects spread throughout the voids between galaxies. This conclusion is part of a new study published in The Astrophysical Journal.

#### August 28, 2020: Maui teens track space satellite plummeting to Earth

Astronomers have known for two decades that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, but the physics of this expansion remains a mystery. Now, a team of researchers at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa have made a novel prediction—the dark energy responsible for this accelerating growth comes from a vast sea of compact objects spread throughout the voids between galaxies. This conclusion is part of a new study published in The Astrophysical Journal.Two Maui middle schoolers spotted a 250-pound space satellite projected to re-enter Earth's atmosphere on Saturday, August 29. Scientists expect the inoperative satellite, OGO-1, to break up over the South Pacific, away from inhabited areas at around 10:45 a.m. HST.

#### August 11, 2020: UH astronomers cast world-wide 'net' of telescopes to catch mysterious fading stars

University of Hawaiʻi scientists are leading one of the newly announced Key Projects on a worldwide network of telescopes called the Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) global telescope network. Using thousands of hours of observing time, they will investigate the neighborhoods of young stars where planets are thought to be forming.

#### August 4, 2020: Hawaiʻi students track asteroid as it passes near Earth

On July 20, our Pan-STARRS1 telescope discovered an asteroid 65 feet in diameter that appeared likely to pass close to Earth. Some of the first follow-up images of the approaching asteroid were taken by Hawaiʻi high school students participating in the IfA's HI STAR program, using telescopes from the Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) global telescope network.

#### July 24, 2020: Asteroid discovered by UH telescope will make close pass Monday

An asteroid discovered on July 20 by the University of Hawaiʻi's Pan-STARRS1 telescope atop Haleakalā will make a close pass of Earth on Monday, July 27. At its closest point, the asteroid will be only about 1.7 times the distance of the Moon.

#### Sept. 26, 2019: Black hole shreds star UH astronomer on discovery team

For the first time, astronomers have witnessed the immediate aftermath of a star being violently ripped apart by a supermassive black hole. The observations were published Thursday in The Astrophysical Journal. IfA's Benjamin Shappee is part of the team of astronomers led by Carnegie Observatories' Thomas Holoien. Both are founding members of the Ohio State University-based All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN)

#### Sept. 10, 2019: Are black holes made of dark energy?

Two University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa researchers have identified and corrected a subtle error that was made when applying Einstein's equations to model the growth of the universe. The results suggest that compact objects like black holes could be made of dark energy.

The existing astronomical observatories on Maunakea returned to operations this weekend, and it didn't take long for a significant result to be achieved, not only for science, but for assuring the safety of the Earth. Observations of the near-Earth asteroid 2006 QV89 made on August 11 with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) have ruled out any potential future impact threat to the Earth by this asteroid for the next century.

#### July 22, 2019: Astronomers map vast void in our cosmic neighborhood

An astronomer from the University of Hawaiʻi Institute for Astronomy (IfA) and an international team published a new study that reveals more of the vast cosmic structure surrounding our Milky Way galaxy.

#### April 16, 2019: Scientists Fill Out A Circumbinary Planetary System

A team of astronomers, including Nader Haghighipour from the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, have discovered a third planet in the circumbinary planetary system Kepler-47. This discovery cements the system's title as the most interesting of the binary-star worlds, and marks the first complete and dynamically full planetary system around a binary star.

#### March 28, 2019: Hawaiʻi Team Catches Asteroid As It Self-Destructs

Astronomers once thought asteroids were boring, wayward space rocks that simply orbit around the Sun. New observations are turning these ideas on their heads, showing that asteroids are anything but dull. Asteroid Gault, discovered in 1998, has begun to slowly disintegrate. The crumbling was first detected on Jan. 5, 2019 by the IfA's ATLAS telescopes on Maunaloa and Haleakalā. Spectacular images of asteroid 6478 Gault from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope show two narrow, comet-like tails of debris streaming from the diminutive 2.5-mile-wide asteroid.

#### March 5, 2019: Kepler Space Telescope's First Exoplanet Candidate Confirmed, Ten Years After Launch

The Kepler Space Telescope was launched ten years ago ans has discovered thousands of exoplanets. Today, an international team of astronomers, led by University of Hawaiʻi graduate student Ashley Chontos, announced the confirmation of the very first exoplanet candidate identified by that mission.

#### February 19, 2019: University of Hawaiʻi Astronomer Awarded Prestigious Sloan Foundation Fellowship

Daniel Huber, an Assistant Astronomer at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Institute for Astronomy (IfA), has been selected for a prestigious 2019 Sloan Research Fellowship, one of 126 recipients across the U.S. and Canada.

#### January 28, 2019: World's largest digital sky survey issues biggest astronomical data release ever

The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, in conjunction with the University of Hawaiʻi Institute for Astronomy (IfA), is releasing the second edition of data from Pan-STARRS &mdash the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System &mdash the world's largest digital sky survey.

#### January 8, 2019: University of Hawaiʻi Astronomer Receives American Astronomical Society's Highest Award

Ann Merchant Boesgaard, Professor of Astronomy, Emerita at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy (IfA), has been awarded the 2019 Henry Norris Russell Lectureship by the American Astronomical Society (AAS). The Russell Prize is the AAS' highest award, and is bestowed annually on the basis of a lifetime of eminence in astronomical research.

#### December 17, 2018: Discovered: Most Distant Solar System Object Ever Observed

A team of astronomers has discovered the most distant body ever observed in our solar system. It is the first known solar system object that has been detected at a distance that is more than 100 times farther than Earth is from the Sun.

The new object was announced on Monday, December 17, 2018, by the International Astronomical Union's Minor Planet Center and has been given the provisional designation 2018 VG18. The discovery was made by Carnegie Observaties' Scott S. Sheppard, the University of Hawaiiʻs David Tholen, and Northern Arizona University's Chad Trujillo.

#### November 30, 2018: Newly discovered supernova may rewrite exploding star origin theories

A supernova discovered by an international group of astronomers has provided an unprecedented look at the first moments of a violent stellar explosion. The team, led in part by IfA Astronomer Ben Shappee, found a mysterious signature in the light from the explosion's first hour. Follow-up obervations suggest that the traditional original theory for these tupes of supernovae is wrong.

#### November 28, 2018: Waipahu HS student, Maunakea scholar studies Star Wars planet

The Star Wars universe turned from science fiction to science fact for a Waipahu High School student, who observed a real-life "Tatooine" using one of the largest, most scientifically-impactful observatories in the world.

#### November 27, 2018: Maunakea Visitor Information Station begins improvements stargazing and operating hours impacted

The Maunakea Visitor Information Station (VIS) on Hawaiʻi Island will adjust its closing time from 10 p.m. to 5 p.m. beginning Sunday, December 9, for an infrastructure project that will improve visitor safety and to better protect natural, historic and cultural resources. Preparations will begin in December with construction slated to start in January 2019. The project is expected to take about six months.

#### November 7, 2018: Best View Yet of Supermassive Black Holes in Merging Galaxies

A team of astronomers, including IfA's David Sanders and former IfA postdoc Mike Koss, have used the W. M. Keck Observatory on Muanakea and the Hubble Space Telescope to complete the most detailed census of supermassive black holes in colliding galaxies. The team's findings support the theory that galaxy mergers explain how some supermassive black holes become so monstrously large.

#### October 2, 2018: While Seeking Planet X, Astronomers Find a Distant Solar System Object

Astronomers have discovered a new object at the edge of our Solar System. The new extremely distant object far beyond Pluto has an orbit that supports the presence of a larger Planet X. The newly found object, called 2015 TG387, was announced by the International Astronomical Union's Minor Planet Center on Monday, October 1, 2018.

### Carson Hawk Kids 5x30 Binoculars

/>Of all the child specific binoculars currently on the market, the Carson HU-530 Hawk is one of my favorites for slightly older kids who are not quite yet ready for standard optics and here is why:

### What I Really Like:

Larger Lenses
One of the main reasons for this is unlike the more compact kids binos that you commonly find (like the ones below with 21mm lenses) this Carson Kids binocular uses larger 30mm objective lenses, yet it is still small and lightweight enough for a young person with small hands to steadily hold onto.

There are a number of very important advantages to this which cannot be understated:

• Firstly these larger lenses are able to capture and let in more light. This helps ensure that a better quality and brighter image is created.
• Next, the larger lenses also combine with the 5x power to produce a nice large 6mm (30÷5) exit pupil. This not only ensures that more than enough light goes through the instrument and on to the eyes of your child for them to perceive a bright image, but this wide tube of light also makes it MUCH easier for them to line their eyes up with these shafts of light and so see the full image without dark rings on the sides.

5x Power
As already mentioned, a low magnification is what you want for your children and at 5x, I think that Carson have got it spot on here.

This makes sure that the field of view is nice and wide (312 ft. at 1000 yards) which makes it easier for them to find the object that they are looking for and you get far less image shake. This it is easier for Children, who as we know can't keep still to get a nice steady image for a better view.

Carson have used real optical glass on these binoculars (not plastic like some toys have ) and the prisms use BK-7 glass, which is fine, but not as good as the BaK-4 glass used in the Kowa above..

Age Range
The age on the case states that these are suitable for children of 6 years and older.

Price Range
These have a MSRP of $23 in the US, but are now readily available on-line for under$15. In the UK, I have seen them on offer for around £20:

## Sometimes, even three-year-olds just want to fit in with the group

Don’t pick your nose. Keep your hands to yourself. What makes children “behave”? New research explains why, as children develop, “because I said so” is no longer enough. Credit: Pixabay

What makes preschoolers eat their veggies? Raise their hand? Wait their turn? "Because I say so" is a common refrain for many parents. But when it comes to getting kids to behave, recent research suggests that the voice of adult authority isn't the only thing that matters. Around age three, fitting in with the group starts to count big too.

That's the finding of a new study by Duke University researchers showing that, by their third birthday, children are more likely to go along with what others say or do for the sake of following the crowd, rather than acting out of a desire to kowtow to authority or heed that person's preferences per se.

"Every culture has its dos and don'ts," said first author Leon Li, a doctoral student in psychology and neuroscience at Duke.

We're not born knowing what to say when someone sneezes, the right and wrong time to wear a hat, or that we should eat with a fork and not with our hands. But most of us begin to pick up on these unwritten social rules when we are very young, and quickly figure out when and how to follow them.

The question, Li said, is what makes young children "behave"? What propels a 3-year-old to use their quiet voice when they'd rather sing and shout? What's really going on when a person covers their cough and a preschooler follows suit, against their own inclination?

Perhaps children this age are not really trying to conform to the accepted way of doing things, some have suggested, as much as they are trying to show regard for adults by doing what they say. Or the child's copycat behavior could be rooted in a desire to feel bonded with that person.

To better understand what motivates preschoolers to fall in line, the researchers conducted a study in the lab of professor Michael Tomasello at Duke, where Li and Duke undergraduate Bari Britvan invited 3.5-year-olds to help set up for a pretend tea party.

Each of the 104 children was given a blue sticker to wear at the start of the study, and told that the people with that color sticker were part of the same team.

Next the researchers watched as the children decided among different kinds of teas, snacks, cups and plates for the tea party, first on their own and then after listening to the choices of other team members.

Sometimes the other team member framed their choice as a matter of personal preference. ("For my tea party today, I feel like using this snack.") Other times they presented it as a norm shared by the whole group: ("For tea parties at Duke, we always use this kind of snack.")

After listening to the choices of others, most of the time the children stuck with their first choice. In other words, children who initially said they felt like using, say, the donut eventually wound up picking the donut no matter what the other person said they were using.

But 23% of the time the children switched their choice to settle for someone else's. And when they did, they were more likely to go along with the other person when an option was presented as a group norm rather than a mere personal preference.

The pattern held up even when the other person was another child, not an adult, suggesting that the preschoolers weren't simply acting out of a desire to imitate adults or obey authority.

Li says the findings lend support to an idea, proposed by Tomasello and colleagues, about how children develop the moral reasoning capacity that sets humans apart from other animals.

When an adult says to an infant or a toddler, "we don't hit," the child generally does as she's told out of deference to that person. But eventually, by around their third birthday, children start to think in a different way. They begin to understand cues such as "we don't hit" as something larger, coming from the group, and act out of a sense of connectedness and shared identity.

Runhappy is a bay horse bred in Kentucky by Wayne, Gray and Bryan Lyster. He is from the first crop of foals sired by Super Saver, the winner of the 2010 Kentucky Derby. Super Saver made a very promising start at stud, with his early progeny also including Competitive Edge (Hopeful Stakes) and Embellish The Lace (Alabama Stakes). [3] Runhappy's dam Bella Jolie won two minor races at Delaware Park Racetrack in 2010. [4] She was descended from Queen Nasra, a broodmare who was the ancestor of many important winners including Balanchine. [5]

As a yearling the colt was consigned to the Keeneland Sales in September 2013 and was bought for \$200,000 by Jim McIngvale, [6] who made his fortune in the furniture business. The colt was initially sent into training with McIngvale's racing manager and sister-in-law Laura Wohlers.

### 2014: Two-Year-Old Season Edit

Runhappy made his first appearance in a maiden race at over six and a half furlongs on the synthetic track at Turfway Park in Kentucky on December 28. Ridden by Adrian Garcia he started second favorite in an eleven-runner field. He went to the front soon after the start and won by eight and a quarter lengths despite showing his inexperience by veering to the right in the straight. [7]

### 2015: Three-Year-Old Season Edit

On his three-year-old debut, Runhappy was moved up in class for the Grade III Lecomte Stakes at Fair Grounds Race Course in New Orleans on January 17. He suffered at least two serious bumps from his opponents and finished ninth of the eleven runners behind International Star. [8] After the race, Maria Borell took over from Wohlers as the colt's trainer. [9]

On his first appearance for Borell, Runhappy won an allowance race over six furlongs on a sloppy track at Indiana Grand Race Course on July 7. On a fast track at Ellis Park Race Course later that month, he won a six and a half allowance, leading for most of the way to beat Springboard by two and three quarter lengths. In both races, he was ridden by Erin Walker. [10]

Edgar Prado took over the ride when Runhappy was moved up sharply in class for the Grade I King's Bishop Stakes over seven furlongs at Saratoga Race Course on August 29. Before the race, Borell explained that she would not use the common raceday medication Lasix, saying, "I don't like drugs and I don't want to run on Lasix if a horse doesn't need it. Runhappy doesn't need it and he's run Lasix-free in all of his starts". [11] Holy Boss, the winner of the Amsterdam Stakes, started as that race's public betting favorite. The other runners included Competitive Edge (Hopeful Stakes), March (Woody Stephens Stakes), Mr Z (Ohio Derby), and Grand Bili (Carry Back Stakes). Runhappy raced in second place before overtaking outsider Limousine Liberal after the first quarter mile. He maintained his advantage and then drew away from his rivals to win by four lengths from Limousine Liberal in a race record time of 1:20.54 with Holy Boss two lengths back in third. [12] After the race, Prado commented, "The plan was to break good out of the gate. He was doing everything so easy and I was very confident in him going into the first turn. When he started pricking his ears and looking for competition, that made me feel good. When I asked him on the top of the stretch and he picked it up, I knew we were in good shape." [11]

On October 2, the opening day of the Keeneland Fall meeting, Runhappy started 7/5 favorite for the Grade III Phoenix Stakes over six furlongs on a sloppy track. Holy Boss was again in opposition, but the main danger appeared to come from Work All Week, the reigning American Champion Sprint Horse. Ridden again by Prado, Runhappy led for most of the way and kept on in the straight to win by one and three quarter lengths from Hutcheson Stakes winner Brabados, with Work All Week taking third ahead of Holy Boss. After the race, Borell said, "He's very talented. He's an amazing horse. I'm so lucky and blessed to have him. Thank you so much, James McIngvale and Laura Wohlers. I'm so blessed." [13] She also reiterated her stand on Lasix, saying, "We've never given him any drugs, and we're proud of that", while Laura Wohlers said, "Maria's very happy about being in a barn that doesn't believe in drugs. She's excited to train clean, and it's good to know he's out there running and that's him". [14]

At Keeneland on October 31, Runhappy, ridden again by Prado, started 8/5 favorite in a fourteen-runner field for the Breeders' Cup Sprint. The multiple Grade I winner Private Zone was second in the betting ahead of Wild Dude (Santa Anita Sprint Championship), Salutos Amigos (Tom Fool Handicap), Limousine Liberal, Masochistic (Triple Bend Invitational Handicap), Kobe's Back (San Vicente Stakes), Big Macher (Bing Crosby Handicap), Holy Boss, and Barbados. Holy Boss took the early lead before Private Zone took over a quarter of a mile from the finish. Runhappy, however, had always been going well behind the leaders and ran on strongly in the closing stages to take the lead 75 yards from the finish and win by three quarters of a length from Private Zone in a track-record time of 1:08.58. Outsider Favorite Tale took third ahead of Holy Boss and Salutos Amigos. [15] After the race, McIngvale said, "We're going to run him next year and see how he does and try to stretch him out [run over longer distance]. Should be a lot of fun. My favorite words are authentic, genuine, real, and transparent. I think if we're going to talk the talk and walk the walk, we've got to do it. No Lasix for us. No drugs. Just hay, oats, and lots of water". [16]

On November 1, the day after the Breeders' Cup, Wohlers, acting as racing manager for McIngvale, dismissed Borell from her position as the colt's trainer. Wohlers claimed the decision had been made prior to the Breeders' Cup. Borell claimed, however, that she had been dismissed because she refused Wohlers' request to send the colt to the track for exercise after finding heat and mild swelling in one of his legs. [17] The ensuing debate between the parties initially played out largely on social media for several days until Borell filed suit against McIngvale on November 10, 2015, alleging breach of contract and defamation. [18] While Borell initially named Keeneland in her suit, requesting that the track hold in escrow a portion of the purse money that was claimed in the lawsuit, [19] the Fayette County Circuit Court held that the court could not order Keeneland to do so. [20]

McIngvale had a long history of summarily firing horse trainers, over 30 As of 2015 [update] , including Hall of Famers Bob Baffert and Bobby Frankel. [19] After Borell was dismissed, Wohlers took over again as the colt's trainer. [17] Runhappy was sent to California, where he won the Grade I Malibu Stakes on December 26, 2015, while giving five pounds to the field. His 3 + 1 ⁄ 2 lengths win was the first Grade I win for Wohlers. His connections stated after the race that they intended to race him in 2016 and attempt longer distances. [21] In January 2016, Runhappy was named American Champion Sprint Horse for 2015 at the Eclipse Awards after taking 255 of the 261 votes. [22] In the 2015 World's Best Racehorse Rankings, Runhappy was rated the joint fifth best sprinter in the world behind Able Friend, Muhaarar, Lankan Rupee, and Chautauqua. [23]