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Separation of the spectral lines, emitted by a celestial object that moves away from the observer, with respect to the position in which they would appear if it were at rest.

The American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble related, in 1929, the redshift observed in the spectra of the galaxies with the expansion of the Universe. He suggested that this displacement is caused by the Doppler effect and, as a consequence, indicates the recoil speed of galaxies. Using the Hubble law you can calculate the distance of the galaxies.

A second mechanism of redshift is the gravitational redshift, also called Einstein's shifting. It was predicted by Albert Einstein in the theory of general relativity, according to which periodic processes slow down in an intense gravitational field. Einstein's displacement is notable in the spectrum of compact massive stars, such as white dwarfs.

It is generally accepted that the wide redshifts observed in quasars are cosmological. Some scientists believe, however, that redshifts in quasars are caused by Einstein's displacement or by another unknown mechanism.

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