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The cosmology It is the science that studies the history and structure of the Universe as a whole.
The birth of modern cosmology can be placed in 1700 with the hypothesis that the stars of the Milky Way (the strip of white light visible in the serene nights from one end of the celestial vault to the other), belong to a stellar system in a discoidal form , of which the Sun itself is part; and that other nebulous bodies visible with the telescope are stellar systems similar to the Milky Way, but far away.
These considerations, together with the determinations of the stellar parallaxes, and therefore of the distances of the stars to us, greatly extended the confines of the Universe, which classical and medieval cosmologies had limited to our solar system.
It was up to the great astronomer Sir William Herschel (1738-1822) to demonstrate, through stellar calculations, that the hypothesis of the most important cosmologists of the seventeenth century was correct. About a century later, another great advance to the understanding of our situation in the Galaxy was contributed by astronomer Harlow Sharpley who, in 1918, was able to calculate that the Sun does not occupy a central position, but a peripheral one.
Only towards the middle of the 20th century, on the other hand, have we had the evidence that our Galaxy has a spiral shape and that, an external observer, would see it as the Andromeda nebula appears to us.
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