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The process of orogenesis consists in the deformation that occurs by understanding the sediments of a sedimentary or geosinclinal basin. The sediments fracture and fold leading to mountain ranges. As you can see in the image, the orogeny gave rise to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, located in northern Arizona, in the United States.
Throughout Earth's history, three major processes of orogenesis have taken place. The first occurred 330 million years ago and is called Caledonian folding. It originated the Caledonian chain, of which remains are left in Scotland, Scandinavia, Australia, Brazil or Canada.
Subsequently, 230 million years ago, the Hercinian folding took place. Of greater scope than the Caledonian, it affected much of Central-Western Europe, the Appalachians in North America, the Urals, the Andes or Tasmania, among other points of the globe.
The third great orogeny was the Alpine folding, which began 62 million years ago. It resulted in the Alpine-Himalayas, which runs from the Pyrenees and the European Alps, through the Caucasus, to the Himalayas. The origin of the Rocky Mountains, the Andes or the Atlas is also due to this orogenesis.
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