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The Cenozoic is the last and most recent geological era on Earth. It covers the last 65 million years, and it is the time when the continents moved to their current positions. As they were placed, large mountain formations emerged. The Himalayas emerged from the collision between India and Asia 55 million years ago, and the formation of the Alps was due to the clash of Arabia with Eurasia.
In fact, this last collision gave rise to many other mountain formations, such as the Atlas Mountains, the Pyrenees, the Balkans, the Taurus Mountains, the Caucasus Mountains, the Elburz Mountains, the Zagros, the Parir Mountains or the Karakórum, among others . Currently, the training process is still going on in one of these areas.
The Alps, which appear in the image, were the product of a series of sea graves from 245 to 65 million years ago and the characteristic movements of the Cenozoic. The closure of these graves, due to the convergence of the African and European continental plates, caused gigantic folds, first in the north and west, and then in the south and east.
These folds caused the surface sedimentary plates to also be displaced in the same directions as the folds. Long after the compression movements, there were extension displacements, due to bending of the raised areas, a process that gave rise to the complicated current orography of the Alps.